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Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

Αποτέλεσμα εικόνας για biology

 

Before 1600

1600-1699

  • ??Jan Baptist van Helmont performs his famous tree plant experiment in which he shows that the substance of a plant derives from water and air, the first description of photosynthesis.
  • 1628William Harvey publishes An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
  • 1651 – William Harvey concludes that all animals, including mammals, develop from eggs, and spontaneous generation of any animal from mud or excrement was an impossibility.
  • 1658Jan Swammerdam observes red blood cells under a microscope.
  • 1663Robert Hooke sees cells in cork using a microscope.
  • 1668Francesco Redi disproves spontaneous generation by showing that fly maggots only appear on pieces of meat in jars if the jars are open to the air. Jars covered with cheesecloth contained no flies.
  • 1672Marcello Malpighi publishes the first description of chick development, including the formation of muscle somites, circulation, and nervous system.
  • 1676Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes protozoa and calls them animalcules.
  • 1677 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa.
  • 1683 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes bacteria. Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries renew the question of spontaneous generation in microorganisms.

1700-1799

  • 1767Kaspar Friedrich Wolff argues that the tissues of a developing chick form from nothing and are not simply elaborations of already-present structures in the egg.
  • 1768Lazzaro Spallanzani again disproves spontaneous generation by showing that no organisms grow in a rich broth if it is first heated (to kill any organisms) and allowed to cool in a stoppered flask. He also shows that fertilization in mammals requires an egg and semen.
  • 1771Joseph Priestley demonstrates that plants produce a gas that animals and flames consume. Those two gases are carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  • 1798Thomas Malthus discusses human population growth and food production in An Essay on the Principle of Population.

1800-1899

  • 1801Jean-Baptiste Lamarck begins the detailed study of invertebrate taxonomy.
  • 1802 – The term biology in its modern sense is propounded independently by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur) and Lamarck (Hydrogéologie). The word had been coined in 1800 by Karl Friedrich Burdach.
  • 1809 – Lamarck proposes a modern theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
  • 1817Pierre-Joseph Pelletier and Joseph-Bienaime Caventou isolate chlorophyll.
  • 1820Christian Friedrich Nasse formulates Nasse’s law: hemophilia occurs only in males and is passed on by unaffected females.
  • 1824 – J. L Prevost and J. B. Dumas showed that the sperm in semen were not parasites, as previously thought, but, instead, the agents of fertilization.
  • 1826Karl von Baer shows that the eggs of mammals are in the ovaries, ending a 200-year search for the mammalian egg.
  • 1828Friedrich Woehler synthesizes urea; first synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic starting materials.
  • 1836Theodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining; first isolation of an animal enzyme.
  • 1837 – Theodor Schwann shows that heating air will prevent it from causing putrefaction.
  • 1838Matthias Schleiden proposes that all plants are composed of cells.
  • 1839Theodor Schwann proposes that all animal tissues are composed of cells. Schwann and Schleinden argued that cells are the elementary particles of life.
  • 1843Martin Barry reported the fusion of a sperm and an egg for rabbits in a 1-page paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
  • 1856Louis Pasteur states that microorganisms produce fermentation.
  • 1858Charles R. Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently propose a theory of biological evolution («descent through modification») by means of natural selection. Only in later editions of his works did Darwin used the term «evolution.»
  • 1858Rudolf Virchow proposes that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells; «Omnis cellula e celulla,» all cell from cells. The Cell Theory states that all organisms are composed of cells (Schleiden and Schwann), and cells can only come from other cells (Virchow).
  • 1864Louis Pasteur disproves the spontaneous generation of cellular life.
  • 1865Gregor Mendel demonstrates in pea plants that inheritance follows definite rules. The Principle of Segregation states that each organism has two genes per trait, which segregate when the organism makes eggs or sperm. The Principle of Independent Assortment states that each gene in a pair is distributed independently during the formation of eggs or sperm. Mendel’s trailblazing foundation for the science of genetics went unnoticed, to his lasting disappointment.
  • 1865Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz realizes that benzene is composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms in a hexagonal ring.
  • 1869Friedrich Miescher discovers nucleic acids in the nuclei of cells.
  • 1874Jacobus van ‘t Hoff and Joseph-Achille Le Bel advance a three-dimensional stereochemical representation of organic molecules and propose a tetrahedral carbon atom.
  • 1876Oskar Hertwig and Hermann Fol independently describe (in sea urchin eggs) the entry of sperm into the egg and the subsequent fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a single new nucleus.
  • 1884Emil Fischer begins his detailed analysis of the compositions and structures of sugars.
  • 1892Hans Driesch separates the individual cells of a 2-cell sea urchin embryo and shows that each cell develops into a complete individual, thus disproving the theory of preformation and showing that each cell is «totipotent,» containing all the hereditary information necessary to form an individual.
  • 1898Martinus Beijerinck used filtering experiments to show that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a bacterium, which he names a virus.

1900-1949

1950-1989

1990-present

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