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The Big Bang Theory and The incredibly precise design of our universe

How the Universe Came into Existence…

The dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe is the Big Bang theory:

 

  • There was a huge explosion (technically, there was no explosion, but space started to expand… don’t ask how or why, because Physicists do not know what happened before the "bang")
  • Energy are converted into matter and anti-matter. But the conversion produces a little more matter than anti-matter (again, we don’t know why). Most anti-matter have annihilated with matter (procuding energy). The remaining matter is scattered in all directions due to the expansion of and begins to cool.
  • First, quarks clump together into protons and neutrons and then protons capture electrons to form Hydrogen atoms.

    The explosion of the Big Bang only formed Hydrogen and Helium

  • Later, Gravity pulls the Hydrogen and Helium together to form stars, and galaxies

    Heavier elements (Carbon, Oxygen, etc) are formed inside stars

  • Stars burned out and exploded and expelled the heavier elements (carbon and oxygen (and other elements)) that formed planets
  • Supporting Evidence for the Big Bang
    • Edwin Hubble discoevred that distant galaxies in every direction are away from us with speeds proportional to their distance.
    • The Big Bang theory also predicts the existence of cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from the explosion itself).

      This radiation was discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.


  • Biblical Reference to Space expansion
    • It is quite interesting that there is an ancient document that describes that space is expanding – which was one of the most important discovery in the 20th century physics…

      This ancient document is… the Bible 🙂

    • Here are some verses where the Bible clearly states that the universe is expanding:

        Psa 104:1 Bless Jehovah, O my soul. O Jehovah my God, You are very great; You have put on honor and majesty,

        Psa 104:2 covering Yourself with light as with a robe; and stretching out the heavens like a curtain;

        Isa 40:22 It is He who sits on the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in;

        Isa 42:5 So says Jehovah God, He who created the heavens and stretched them out, spreading out the earth and its offspring; He who gives breath to the people on it and spirit to those who walk in it.

      The verse in Isaiah 42:5 is interesting also from the Physical standpoint: it also states that space (= heaven) had a beginning (creation point). This is exactly what Physics has discovered:

      • Before the "Big Bang" occured, space (and time) did not exist.
      • In other words: space and time (our universe) had a beginning… (this fact was very troubling to many).


  • Note
    • Although the Big Bang Theory is widely accepted, it probably will never be proved (unless you can travel back in time…)
  • Where are we ???
    • Our Earth is the Third planet in the Solar System:

    • Our Solar System in located in a spiral galacy:

    • And our galacy is one of several billions of galacies:

    • It is of little wonder that the famous (late) Astronomer Carl Sagan says:

      Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity — in all this vastness — there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

  • Where is God in all of this ???
    • At first, it is hard to believe that God had anything to do with the Big Bang

      And from the location of Earth, it looks and feels that Earth is nothing more than an meaningless speck in this immense universe

    • HOWEVER…. the more Astronomy learn about the Universe and Geology about the Earth, the more scientists believe that Earth is NOT JUST a meaningless speck but has been UNIQUELY DESIGNED and PLACED

Laws of Physics and the Pre-condition for Life


  • The Pre-Condition for Life
    • For life to DEVELOP, you need the building blocks for life:
      • Hydrogen and Oxygen molecules for Water
      • Carbon molecules for Protein
      • Iron molecules for Hemogloben
      • And so on
    • Life CANNOT develop without a variety of elements
    • For a universe to support life, it must:
      • Have the building blocks of life (molucules like Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Iron, Calcium, etc., etc.)
      • Energy (stars) – not too much (the stars must not burn too rapidly and produce X-ray which will destroy life) and not too little (the stars must not burn too slowly and produce red/infra red light – photosynthesis requires higher energy blue light).
      • There are other conditions (e.g., planet must orbit the sun at the right distance), but let’s just focus on these small set of requirements.
    • As we shall see, meeting these simple conditions is not easy…
  • Laws of Physisc
    • There are 4 FUNDAMENTAL FORCES in Physics:
      • Gravitational force (weakest): click here for more detail

        and the gravity constant (measured) to be (approximately) equal to 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2.


      • Electro-magnetic force: electric and magnetic

        and the Coulomb constant is measured at:


      • Nuclear weak-force

        • The weak force is a REPELLING force
        • It causes radioactivty

      • Nuclear strong-force (strongest)

        • The strong force holds the nucleus together
  • Amazing Discovery in the 1980’s

      The Laws of Fundamental Forces in Physics have an EXTREMELY NARROW range of parameters that will result in a Universe that is Life-Sustaining

      It is like some SUPERINTELLECT has monkeyed with the Laws of Physics, (as well as with chemistry and biology) so that the Universe WILL sustain Life….

    • This discovery reminds me of the following verse in Romans:

      Romans 1:20 —– "For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities –his eternal power and divine nature– have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse."

    • I will detail some interesting "coincidences" below…. there are just TOO MANY to list all of them
  • PRELUDE
    • But first, let me give you some preliminary information that help you understand/appreciate these findings
    • The four fundamental forces where discovered and measured EMPIRICALLY and INDEPENDENTLY
    • That means that:
      • There is NO OBVIOUS RELATIONSHIP between these four forces.
    • With the advent of powerful computers, Physicists studied the effect when the STRENGTH of some force is changed

      The findings are nothing more than amazing….


  • Changing the Strength of the Gravitational force
    • The gravitational force pulls all matters together.
    • The gravitational force is the primary force in the forming of stars:

      hydrogen atoms are compressed together under the tremendous gravitational pull and the outer electrons are stripped by the tremendous heath. The remaining protons are converted to alpha particals (He-4) in the proton-proton cycle: click here

    • The gravitational force is 1039 times weaker that electro-magnetic force.
    • Making gravitational force stronger:

      If gravitational force is 1033 times weaker than electromagnetism, then stars would burn a million times faster.

      Stars will BURN SO FAST and SO FURIOUS, that life will not have time nor opportunity to develop (radiation will kill all life)

      — See: John Leslie, Universes (London: Routlege, 1989), p.5.

    • Making gravitational force weaker:

      If gravitational force was weaker, stars will burn too slowly and will not produce enough energy to support life.


  • Changing the Strength of the Electro-megnetic force
    • If the Electro-magnetic force is a little stronger, the (positive) nucleus will hold on so strongly to their electrons that chemical reactions (exchanging electrons between atoms) cannot occur.

      No chemical reactions, no valent bonds… no water, no carbon chains, no life…

    • If the Electro-magnetic force is a little weaker, the nucleus cannot hold their electrons in orbit and there will be no atoms…

  • Changing the Strength of the Nuclear Strong-force: click here
    • The strong force determine HOW STRONG protons and neutrons attract to each other.
    • Making the Nuclear Strong-force stronger:

      If the Strong force is just 0.3% stronger, protons and neutrons would attract so much that solitair protons will be EXTREMELY rare

      In other words: there will NO HYDROGEN ATOMS

      No Hydrogen means NO WATER MOLECULES and NO LIFE will be possible….

    • Making the Nuclear Strong-force weaker:

      If the Strong force is 2% weaker, protons and neutrons would not "stick together" and heavy elements CANNOT be formed

      The universe will consist of only hydrogen atoms without any CARBON or OXYGEN atoms…. and again…. NO LIFE will be possible….

  • Summary:
    • The relative strengths of the 4 fundamental forces must be within very very very narrow margins to allow for:
      • the existence of atoms
      • chemical reactions
      • energy production in stars
      • etc, etc

      that allow life to exist in this universe.

    • Question:
        Why are the Physical constants (which are empirically measured) of the fundamental forces within these very narrow margins ?
    • If the universe is a random product, these Physical constants would naturally assume arbitrary values.

      IF the universe was a random product, it is extremely unlikely that the Physical constants of the fundamental forces fall within the required margins to allow building blocks of life to exist…

      In other words: if the universe was a random product, it is highly unlikely that there is life in the universe….

    • You may be thinking: we were lucky… Just read on till the end and hopefully, I can convince you otherwise…
    • But before I present the choices, I like to tell you that there are much more "coincidences" that enable our universe to support life…

      So many coincidences that scientists coined a new term: anthropic principle – it is like the universe had to produce intelligent life…

      Yeah, right…


The Miracle Molecule


  • State of Matters

    Matter can be in one of 3 (actually 4 – plasma) states:

    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  • Density of Ordinary Solid and Liquid
    • The DENSITY of EVERY substance (except one) is HIGHER in the SOLID state than in the LIQUID state
    • For example: Solid iron is HEAVIER than liquid (molten) iron

      Therefore, solid iron will SINK to the bottom of a liquid (molten) iron soup.

  • Density of WATER
    • The ONLY substance whose density is LOWER in the SOLID state than in the LIQUID state is WATER

      Consequently: Ice FLOATS on water

    • This very nature of water is vital to LIFE and is Unique among ALL molecules:

      If ice did not float on water, the oceans would freeze from the bottom up because ice – when frozen – will SINK to the bottom and CANNOT be MELTED by sun’s rays !

      The earth would now be covered with solid ice.

      —- Barrow and Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. Oxford: OUP, 1988, pp143-144, 524-541.

      — Also Cf. D. Wilkinson, Our Universes (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp171-172.

    • Why is water unique in this respect ?

      The "scientific explanation" goes into the crystal structure of ice and so on.

      But why should the crystal structure of ice have this special property and all other crystal structures do not ???

      It is as if someone foresaw that without this property, there won’t be life and DESIGNED this property into the Universe so that life CAN exist….


More Fine Tuning of Forces: Carbon and Oxygen Synthesis


  • Carbon
    • Carbon (C) is the vital core of all organic molecules

      Without carbon, there will not be any protein molecules and without protein, there will not be any LIFE.

    • Like all heavier elements, Carbon (C) is created inside the nucleus of stars.

      Stars will first burn Hydrogen (H) to Helium (He)

      When Helium (He) is exhausted, the star will burn Helium (He) to Carbon (C)

    • Schematically:

  • Carbon Synthesis and Forces of Nature
    • Physisists have discovered that an "astonishing coincidence" was NECESSARY for the nuclear fusion in stars to produce Carbon.

      This "astonishing coincidence" involved a VERY PRECISE ratio of the NUCLEAR STRONG FORCE and ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FORCE

    • Reference: "Cosmic Coincidences", Gribbin and Rees, New York: Bantam, 1989, pp.243-247
  • The Problem of Carbon Synthesis
    • Carbon is made in the cores of stars after the stars has finished burning Hydrogen into Helium (in the "Proton-proton" cycle).

      At this stage, the star consists mainly of Helium

    • The obvious next step in the nuclear fusion is have two Helium nuclei fuse together to form Beryllium:

    • There is a HUGE problem however: Beryllium-8 is extremely unstable (Beryllium-9 is a stable isotope) and split apart in about 10-16 of a second (0.00000000000000001 sec)

      And therefore, the following nuclear reation to make Carbon is EXTREMELY RARE:

    • There is another way for Helium to react in a fusion: in a triple collisions:

      A simultaneous collision of THREE particles is also EXTREMELY RARE

    • So PHYSICALLY Speaking, there is NO WAY to form Carbon (C).

      And yet, there is an abundance of Carbon (C) in nature….

      How is it possible ?????

  • Nuclei Resonance:
    • When two nuclei collide and stick together, the new nucleus that is formed carries the combined mass-energy of the two nuclei, plus the combined energy of their motion, their kinetic energy (and minus a small amount of energy from the strong force, the binding energy that holds the new nucleus together):

    • The new nucleus MUST occupy one of the NATURAL LEVELS on its own energy ladder

      If this combined energy from the incoming particles is not "just right" then the excess has to be eliminated, in the form of leftover KINETIC ENERGY (new particle will move faster or slower), or as a particle ejected from the nucleus.

    • If the energy levels are too different, it reduces the likelihood that the two colliding nuclei will stick together; in many eases, they simply bounce off each other and continue to lead their separate lives:

    • If the total energy of the new particle is VERY NEAR the sum of all energy of the two colliding particles, then the collision will create a particle with exactly the energy that corresponds to one of its natural levels

      In THIS CASE, the interaction will proceed very effectively, and the conversion of lighter nuclei into a heavier form will be VERY RAPID.

    • This matching of energies to one of the levels appropriate for the new nuclei is the effect known as RESONANCE, and it depends crucially on the structure of the nuclei involved in the collisions.

      RESONANCE between nuclei is VERY VERY RARE .

  • The Carbon Coincidence
    • Carbon is a necessary element for LIFE and it is abundant in the universe.

      As discussed before; CARBON should NOT have existed ABUNDANTLY in the Universe – because there is NOT WAY to make Carbon quickly in stars.

    • In 1954, the Astronomer Fred Hoyle of Cambridge Univ. realised that the ONLY WAY to make enough carbon for LIFE inside stars is if there is a RESONANCE involving Helium-4, Beryllium-8, and Carbon-12.
    • The mass-energy of each nucleus is fixed and cannot change;

      The kinetic energy that each nucleus has depends on the TEMPERATURE inside a star, which Hoyle could calculate.

    • Taking into account the mass-energy of Helium-4 and Beryllium-8, and the calculated kinetic energy of each particle based on the temperature inside the star, Hoyle predicted that the resonance energy level would be 7.82 MeV.

      The problem was: the 7.82 MeV level in Carbon was UNKNOWN (because it was hard to Carbon achieve such a high energy level)

    • The NUCELAR PHYSICISTS were skeptical (Hoyle was an Astronomer, not a nuclear physicists).

      BUT…. to the ASTONISHMENT of the NUCELAR PHYSICISTS, later experiments (done by nucelar physicists) showed that Carbon-12 DOES HAVE an energy level just 4 percent ABOVE Hoyle’s PREDICTED ENERGY LEVEL:

      (This is close enough that the kinetic energies of the colliding Helium-4 and Beryllium-8 nuclei can supply the excess.)

    • NOTE
        To appreciate this from a layman’s point of view, let me add this:

        Suppose, for example, that the energy level in Carbon had turned out to be just 4 percent lower – at 7.50 MeV – then NO CARBON could have formed inside the stars !!!

    • In other words:

      There is ABSOLUTELY NO GOOD REASON for Carbon (C) to have an energy level at 8.13 MeV; except that without this energy level in Carbon (C), Carbon would NOT be produced and LIFE would not be possible.

  • The Oxygen Coincidence
    • Oxygen (O) is another necessary element for LIFE and it is also abundant in the universe.
    • Oxygen is formed in stars as follows:

        C66 + He22 –> O88

    • Here again, the rate of the reaction depends on the energy levels of the Oxygen molecule.
    • If there is an energy level in Oxygen whose energy is equal to Carbon and Helium, then ALL Carbon will be rapidly converted to Oxygen

      However, if the nearest energy level of Oxygen is FAR away from the sum of energies of Carbon and Helium, then NO Oxygen will be formed…..

      NEITHER OPTIONS are GOOD !!!

      • Life needs Carbon ! So if all Carbon atoms are converted to Oxygen, you WILL NOT have LIFE !
      • On the other hand, if NO Oxygen is formed, you also will NOT have Life.
  • Guess what…..
    • There IS an energy level in Oxygen that is VERY CLOSE to that of the sum of energies of Carbon and Helium…
    • This energy level in Oxygen is 1% LESS than the sum of energies of Carbon and Helium.
    • Because of this, only the SLOWER MOVING molecules of Carbon and Helium collide inside the star will be successful in forming Oxygen.
    • The result of this is:

      EXACTLY HALF of Carbon in star are converted to Oxygen leaving HALF of Carbon unconverted.

    • Hoyle – an atheist – who proposed the Helium, Beryllium and Carbon resonance, wrote:

      If you wanted to produce carbon and oxygen in ROUGHLY EQUAL QUANTITIES by stellar nucleosynthesis, these are the two basic levels you would have to fix, and your fixing would have to be just about where these levels are ACTUALLY FOUND TO BE….

      A commonsense interpretation of the facts suggests that a SUPERINTELLECT has MONKEYED with physics . . . and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature.

    • In other words:

      It looks like SOMEONE thinkered with the laws of Physics so that Carbon and Oxygen HAD TO BE produced in the right amount to CAUSE LIFE….

    • References:

The Flatness-Oldness Problem


  • The Evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang
    • After the initial "Big Bang", space is "stretched out" and the matter "fly" away from each other.
    • However, the matter in the Universe attract each other through gravitational force….

      Depending on the AMOUNT of matter in the Universe, one of three things can happen:

      • If the amount of matter is EXACTLY enough to slow down the space expansion, the expansion will eventually stop and become stable.

        This scenario is called the "flat universe"

      • If the amount of matter is MORE, then expansion will stop AND SPACE WILL CONTRACT

        This scenario is called the "spherical universe" and will result in a "BIG CRUNCH" (opposite of BIG BANG) – all matter will be smushed together….

      • If the amount of matter is LESS, then expansion will never stop

        This scenario is called the "hyperbolic universe"

  • Effect of Different Universes
    • Depending on the geometry of the Universe, light travels differently:

    • For "aesthetic" reasons (and science is a whole lot easier with having to deal with space curving….), a flat universe is prefered….
  • What does it take to create a FLAT Universe ?
    • Since all matter/energy is created at the Big Bang, physicists have calculate that:

      • If the density of the matter is equal to 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,016 mg/cc after 1 nsec (0.000,000,000,1 sec) after the Big Bang, then the density of the Universe is equal to 1 (and the density will remain 1 always) and the Universe will be flat
      • HOWEVER, IF the density of the matter is equal to 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,017 mg/cc, the Universe would have collapsed by now.
      • AND FURTHERMORE, IF the density of the matter is equal to 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,015 mg/cc, the current density of the Universe (that we observe NOW) should be LESS than 10-20
      • Believe it or not, current observed density of the Universe is between 0.1 and 10…..

        For THIS to happen, the density of the Universe must be set to PRECISELY 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,015 mg/cc – UPTO 24 DIGIT ACCURACY !!! – at 1 nsec after the Big Bang

        It must even be MORE accurate before 1 nsec….

      • We don’t have a clue why the universe is flat….
    • Note for Laymen:
      • Clearly, there is a VERY GOOD reason why the density of the Universe MUST NOT be MORE than 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,015 mg/cc at 1 nsec after the Big Bang:

        The universe would have collapsed by now (in the "Big Crunch") !!! And you won’t be around to tell about it.

      • But the density of the Universe MUST NOT be LESS than 447,225,917,218,507,401,284,015 mg/cc at 1 nsec after the Big Bang either !!!

        In that case, the expansion of the universe (space) would have been too rapid for stars and galaxies to form… No stars, no life…

      • The amount of mass created in the Big Bang is – by all reasonable assumption – RANDOM.

        So, WHY then should this amount be PRECISELY that amount that will create a FLAT UNIVERSE ???

          Maybe, just maybe Someone set it up that way ???

        A scary thought: this Someone must have the intelligence to calculate the density value to an incredible precision…

      • An analogy:
          Suppose you try to STAND a pencil on it tip.

          There ONLY ONE possible WAY: when the center of gravity of the pencil is precisely under the tip…

          Every other way, the pencil will fall.

          This is what is happening in the Big Bang: of all the possible mix of masses, the Universe had to pick that SPECIAL one that makes it FLAT….

          It is ILLEGOCAL and Mind-bogglingly improbable !!!


The Unique location and structure of our Solar system


  • Is Earth special ? Is our Solar System special ?
    • The Universe is very very vast….

      So there must be sillions of earth-like planets out there and life everywhere

      That was the conclusion from the book "Life Everywhere" by David Darling…..

    • However, there are dissending scientific voices:
      • See: "Rare Earth" by Peter Ward (professor of Geology, Univ. of Washington) and Ronald Brownlee (professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington)
      • See: "The Privileged Planet" by Guillermo Gonzales (assistant prof. of astronomy and physics, Iowa State) and Jay Wesley Richards (doctorate from Princeton Theological Seminary)

        These dissending opinions are not based on religious dogma, but based on recent discoveries that our earth and solar system is very unique…. it may even be the only place in the whole Universe that can harbor life !!!!

  • A very important fact of life:
    • Life is FRAGILE

      Super nova (exploding stars) and GAMMA RAY BURSTS can wipe out life in a second…

      LIFE prefer a STABLE environment

  • A number of finely tuned qualities of our solar system to support life
    • The MASS of our galaxy
      • Our galaxy is on the top 1% or 2% of the most massive and luminous galaxies in the whole Universe (Case for a Creator, pp 170).

        This allows stars to be more massive and produce heavy elements faster – these elements are necessary for life

    • The SHAPE of our galaxy
      • There are 3 types of galaxies:
        • Spiral:

          STABLE. Locations in spiral galxy that are FAR away from star formations and super novae are candidate location to support life

          Our galaxy is spiral….

        • Elipical:

          NOT suitable to support life due to too many active star formations and super novae that will wipe out life

        • Irregular:

          NOT suitable to support life due to too many active star formations and super novae that will wipe out life

    • The LOCATION of our solar system in our galaxy

        Our solar system is located VERY FAR from the center of the galaxy (where there is a great black hole and where many stars are borned and super novae that will kill off life) and BETWEEN the spiral arms – which put us away from super novae AND give us a great view to study the Universe

    • The Mass of our Sun
      • the speed of nuclear reaction dependent on the mass of the sun
      • Mass of our sun is optimal for Photosynthesis: all colors are represented
      • If mass too low, the sun will burn (too slow) red and produce little blue light
      • If mass too high, the sun will burn (too fast) blue and produce a lot of harmful ultra violet light
    • Distance between Sun and Earth
      • The distance will affect the amount of energy received from the sun
      • The distance between earth and sun IS VERY CRITICAL FOR LIFE
      • If earth was too close to the sun, water will evaporate that will cloud the sky and slow down or even stop photosynthesis.
      • If earth was too far from the sun, water will freeze
    • Orbit of Earth around the Sun

        • The distance between the earth and the sun varies LESS than 0.33% !!!
        • Earth’s orbit is ALMOST CIRCULAR
        • Not surprised ?MOST planets circling OTHER stars have HIGHLY ELLIPICAL orbits !!!
        • Why is THAT important ?It minimizes TEMPERATURE CHANGE as the earth revolves around the sun !!!
    • Orbit of OTHER PLANETS around the Sun
      • Measure of eccentricity or "circular squashness":


        Eccentricity =
            (Max distance – Avg. distance)/Avg. distance)

        Planet
        Farthest Distance to sun
        Shortest Distance to sun
        Eccentricity

        Mercury
        70,000,000 Km
        46,000,000 Km
        0.206

        Venus
        109,000,000 Km
        107,000,000 Km
        0.007

        Earth
        152,000,000 Km
        147,000,000 Km
        0.017

        Mars
        249,000,000 Km
        207,000,000 Km
        0.093

        Jupiter
        816,000,000 Km
        741,000,000 Km
        0.048

        Saturn
        1,507,000,000 Km
        1,347,000,000 Km
        0.056

        Uranus
        3,004,000,000 Km
        2,735,000,000 Km
        0.047

        Neptune
        4,537,000,000 Km
        4,456,000,000 Km
        0.009

        Pluto
        7,375,000,000 Km
        4,425,000,000 Km
        0.248

      • Orbit of Venus is CIRCULARthis is very important because Venus’ size is like earth’s and an eccentric orbit will destabelizes EARTH’s orbit !!!
      • Orbit of ALL Giant Planets are CIRCULARagain, this is very important because their gravitational forces are huge and and an eccentric orbit will destabelizes EARTH’s orbit !!!
      • What’s the chance of some many planets having near-circular orbits ???
      • NOTE: Pluto CROSSES the orbit of Neptune !!! BTW: Some astronomers do NOT consider Pluto a planet, but some object from the "Kuiper Belt" (an asteroid field far far away circling the sun)….
    • Jupiter (Saturn and Neptune): Earth’s gardian angle…
      • The Giant Planet Jupiter (and in a lesser amount, Saturn and Neptune) is SHIELDING earth from many asteroids/comets by drawing these space debries to itself and away from hitting Earth !!!

        Jupiter is in fact "taking the hits" for earth.

      • Evidence of this is the Collision of the comet Shoemaker-Levi 9 with Jupiter in July 1994:

  • Earth’s Moon

    Earth’s moon has a number of extra-ordinary properties that make our moon extremely rare

    • Moon’s size
      • NO PLANET has been found that has a moon that is THAT HUGE compared to the host planet’s size
    • Moon’s orbit
      • The eccentricity (flatness of the ellipse orbit) of the lunar orbit is 0.054900489 – again, almost CIRCULAR ( click here )
    • Moon and Earth’s Tilt
      • What is "tilt"

      • The SIZE and the CIRCULAR orbit of the moon STABILIZES the TILT of Earth:

        Earth’s tilt ranges between 22 degrees to 24.5 degrees over a 41,000 year cycle.

        That is VERY VERY SMALL compared with Mars that does NOT have a stabelizing moon: study shows that Mars tilt varies CHAOTICALLY between 10 – 50 degrees : click here

        Smaller tilt means STABLE temperature & environment for LIFE !!!

    • Moon and Earth’s Water Cycle
      • The reason why Earth has UNUSUALLY mild climate is due to the Gulf Stream:

        The Gulf stream is like a "a river in the ocean" – according to oceanographer Mathhew Maury in 1855.

        Here are pictures of two different COASTAL places at 70 degree N, one place near the path of the Gulf Stream and the other not:


        The HUGE size of the Moon contributes to 40% of the total tidal effects and is a BIG part in creating the Gulf Stream

        Reference: click here

    • Moon EXACT Matching SIZE and DISTANCE
      • The Moon is 400 times smaller than the sun
      • The Moon is ALSO 400 times closer than the sun
      • As a result, the moon covers the sun EXACTLY:

        And EARTH is the BEST place in the Solar system to observe a SOLAR ECLIPSE

      • Solar eclipses have help science verify some Laws in Physics – e.g., Einstein’s Theory of Relativity predicted that light would be curved by a gravitational field and sun’s field is the ONLY one in the solar system strong enough to detect the curving.
  • The Mystery of the Moon’s Origin
    • How is Earth’s moon created ???
    • Due to the HUGE size of the moon and the CIRCULAR lunar orbit, it is ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE that the moon was CAPTURED by earth.
    • The BEST explanation so far is:
        While Earth was in the forming stages, a Mars-size object collided with Earth

        Some of the material spun into orbit and formed the moon….

    • The problems with this "BEST explanation":
      • Right size: the object cannot be too small nor too large; it has to be a tiny bit smaller than the earth itself – size of Mars; and "Mars size object" flying around the Universe is very rare
      • Impact probability: the chance that the RIGHT SIZE object hitting earth is EVEN RARER (how often do you see 2 planets collide ?)….
      • Impact ANGLE: computer simulation has shown that the RIGHT SIZE object must hit Earth at a VERY VERY PRECISE angle to create a moon… (if angle is too steep, the object is absorbed into the earth and forms a bigger planet; and if the angle is not steep enough, the object bounces into deep space… talking about a lucky shot in the dark !)
      • In summary: the probability of a Mars-size object hitting earth and creating our moon is virtually ZERO
      • Basically, we do NOT have a clue how our moon could be so big, has such a circular orbit and happens to be there to stabalize Earth’s climate….

        Boy, are we lucky or what ????

      • Oh, yeah – by the way, without the moon, earth’s climate would not be able to sustain life (well, except maybe for some bacteria that can survive freezing cold and blistering heat…)


  • Summary
    • Informed scientists now univerally recognise that the Universe is exquisitely finely tuned to allow the coming into being of intelligent life.
    • The only reasonable debate is whether this is due to:
      1. A Loving Ultimate Creator (the universe was designed by God !)
      2. An extraordinary coincidence (No self-repecting scientist champions this idea because the odds against this hypothesis makes winning the lotto like a sure thing…)
      3. There exists an infinity of "other Universes" in which the constants are different (and we are so lucky to be living in the universe with the "right constants".
  • Your choice ?
    • Note that none of the choices 1, 2 and 3 are scientific – because science deals with observable and repeatable phenomenon.
    • Choice 2 is the least logical – it’s like playing a mega lotto (something like picking 100 numbers between 1 and 1,000,000 and win with your first ticket)… Talking about "against all odds"…. – further reading: "Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces that Shape the Universe", Martin Rees – Here is a summary: click here
    • Choice 3 is an "onthological (a priori) argument" – since we already know the universe that we live in provides all the necessary molecules to support life, therefore there must be a "logical explanation" for it. And one of the possible logical explanation is the "theory" that there are infinite number of universes and we are so lucky to live in the right one.

      The fallacy of this argument is that there is no way for us to visit the other universes. So if you believe this, your faith must be very great – in fact, just as great – if not greater than the faith needed to believethat there is a God



 

http://www.ichthus.info/BigBang/intro.html

 

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