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Ο όμορφος κόσμος του κυττάρου / Live Cell Video Collections

 

 

Του Νίκου Τσούλια

     Είναι η βάση της ζωής. Είναι η μικρότερη ολοκληρωμένη δομή πάνω στον ταπεινό πλανήτη μας που μπορεί να αναπαράγεται και να εξελίσσεται στον χρόνο τον άπαντα. Είναι το βιολογικό θεμέλιο επί του οποίου στηρίζεται όλο το φαινόμενο της ζωής. Για τη Βιολογία και την επιστήμη η ζωή συνδέεται απόλυτα με την παρουσία του κυττάρου. Ό,τι είναι κύτταρο συνιστά ζωή και αντιστρόφως, ό,τι δεν είναι κύτταρο δεν είναι ζωή.

     Αλλά γνωρίζοντας το κύτταρο δε σημαίνει ότι γνωρίζουμε τη ζωή. Πάντα κάτι μάς «ξεφεύγει», πάντα υπάρχει ουσία απροσέγγιστη. Η έννοια της ζωής και πολύ περισσότερο το νόημά της και ο σκοπός της άραγε θα είναι όπως και οι έννοιες της ύπαρξης και του χρόνου τόποι σχετικής γνώσης, περιοχές οριακής πρόσβασης;

     Εκατομμύρια είναι οι διαφορετικές μορφές των κυττάρων. Εντυπωσιακή η πορεία της διαφοροποίησής τους στους πολυκύτταρους οργανισμούς. Ο άνθρωπος ξεκινάει το φοβερό ταξίδι της βιολογικής του συγκρότησης από ένα μόλις κύτταρο, από ένα κύτταρο που διαρκώς διαιρούμενο (και στη συνέχεια διαιρούμενα) πολλαπλασιάζεται (πολλαπλασιάζονται) και διαμορφώνει ένα θαυμαστό πλούτο διαφορετικών μορφών κυττάρων. Και κάθε μορφή / δομή κυττάρου συνδιαλέγεται διαλεκτικά με τη λειτουργία του, έτσι ώστε να μιλάμε για μια δομολειτουργική οντότητα με εκπληκτικές δυνατότητες που ξεδιπλώνονται απεριόριστα στο βάθος του χρόνου.

     Και αν καμαρώνουμε ότι έχουμε γνωρίσει πλέον κάθε γωνιά της Γης και όλα στα σημεία της είναι «του χεριού μας», δεν μπορούμε να ισχυριστούμε ότι γνωρίζουμε όλη τη βιολογική ποικιλομορφία των κυττάρων. Υπάρχουν εκατομμύρια είδη κυττάρων άγνωστα και κάθε φορά «ξετρυπώνοντας» ολόκληρα βασίλεια και οικογένειες μονοκύτταρων οργανισμών απορούμε για την επεκτατική δύναμη της ζωής, για τις εντυπωσιακές ικανότητες των κυττάρων. Και είναι τα βακτήρια ανεξέλικτα εδώ και δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια, ζωντανά απολιθώματα των πρώτων βημάτων της ζωής και δεν μπορούμε να εξηγήσουμε γιατί άλλα κύτταρα είναι ευεπίφορα στις προσαρμογές του περιβάλλοντος και στη «φυσική επιλογή» της εξέλιξης και είναι υπό διαρκή μετασχηματισμό και άλλα είναι σταθερά εδώ και δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια και δεν φαίνεται να αλλάζουν ποτέ.

     Πόσοι γνωρίζουμε άραγε ότι στο ανθρώπινο σώμα έχουμε πάνω μας και μέσα μας περισσότερα κύτταρα βακτηρίων από τα κύτταρα του δικού μας σώματος; Πόσοι γνωρίζουμε ότι οι γενετικές δεξαμενές – βακτηρίων και ανθρώπινων κυττάρων – δεν είναι απόλυτα αυτοτελείς και ότι φέρουμε και βακτηριακό γενετικό υλικό στο δικό μας DNA; Πόσοι γνωρίζουμε ότι ο κόσμος των βακτηρίων ζει στις πιο ακραίες συνθήκες της Γης και ότι τα σπόριά τους είναι η πιο ανθεκτική μορφή της ζωής; Πόσοι γνωρίζουμε ότι δεν θα μπορούσε να υπάρξει ζωή χωρίς τον αποικοδομητικό ρόλο των βακτηρίων;

     Το εσωτερικό του κυττάρου είναι μια θαυμάσια ημίρρευστη μονάδα, που ναι μεν «κολυμπάει» στο νερό, αλλά που ταυτόχρονα διαμορφώνει ειδικές περιοχές (οργανίδια) με αυτοτελείς λειτουργίες και με συντονισμένη συμπεριφορά που θα υπηρετεί τις ανάγκες του κυττάρου. Ίσως ένα από τα πιο θαυμαστά σημεία της εξέλιξης να είναι το πέρασμα από τους μονοκύτταρους οργανισμούς στους πολυκύτταρους, μέσα από τους οποίους η ζωή γνώρισε νέες αναβαθμίδες υψηλότερης και πολυπλοκότερης δομής και λειτουργίας.

     Είναι βέβαιο ότι ποτέ δεν ρωτήθηκε το κύτταρο αν θα συγκροτήσει πολυκύτταρες μορφές· ίσως και να μην «ήθελε», αφού θα έχανε κάποιες ελευθερίες της πρότερης ανεξαρτησίας του. Αλλά έτσι γίνεται στο ποτάμι της Εξέλιξης, τίποτα δεν είναι σταθερό, καμιά μορφή δεν αποτελεί αυτοσκοπό, όλα είναι μέρος του ταξιδιού, του ταξιδιού της ζωής που οφείλει να προχωράει για να μπορεί να υπάρξει!

     Ανακαλύψτε την ομορφιά της ζωής του μικροσκοπικού μας κόσμου, του δικού μας κόσμου. Εμείς δεν είμαστε μόνο ό,τι βλέπουμε στον καθρέφτη, ό,τι ανάγεται στον κοινωνικό και στον πολιτισμικό μας ρόλο, είμαστε και ο απέραντος κόσμος των κυττάρων και των διαφοροποιημένων ιστών μας. Άλλωστε, η αυτογνωσία μας, που αποτελεί και το πρώτιστο μέλημά μας, εμπεριέχει και ένα ξεχωριστό κομμάτι, τη βιολογική αυτογνωσία μας. Είναι ο κόσμος της ύλης μας που μάς δίνει τη δυνατότητα ανάδυσης και του ανθρώπινου και του πολιτισμικού μας ειδώλου.

     Θαυμάστε φωτογραφίες και βίντεο διάφορων μορφών κυττάρων. Αναστοχαστείτε στο πώς το παιχνίδι της ζωής μπορεί και δίνει αυτή την εκπληκτική ανάδυση όλων και πιο νέων ιδιοτήτων της, όλο και πιο πολύπλοκων μορφών της και αναρωτηθείτε. Μπορούμε ποτέ να προβλέψουμε τους προσανατολισμούς του ταξιδιού της ζωής; Μπορούμε να δημιουργήσουμε συνθετικές μορφές κυττάρου και επομένως δικές μας μορφές ζωής; Μπορούμε να σκηνοθετήσουμε έστω ένα μέρος του έργου της ζωής; Μπορούμε να κάνουμε μίξη της τεχνολογίας και της βιολογίας και να γίνει η υπέρβασή μας μέσα από τα δικά μας χέρια; Και τότε τι μπορεί να σημαίνει μια τέτοια δυνατότητα; Έχουμε την αρετή και την ταπεινότητα να γίνουμε μικροί θεοί;

 
 
 
Σχολείο

 

http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm

http://www.scienceprofonline.com/cell-biology/eukaryotic-cell-parts-functions-diagrams.html

http://biology-pictures.blogspot.gr/2011/08/animal-cell-diagram.html

Σχολείο

Live Cell Video Collections

  • Albino Swiss Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts (3T3 Line)
    Explore how the cells in this active fibroblast interact with each other in culture. The 3T3 cell line is an important fibroblast culture, widely utilized in laboratory research, which was established from disaggregated tissue of an albino Swiss mouse (Mus musculus) embryo. In culture, 3T3 cells double in approximately 24 hours to eventually form confluent monolayers that display contact inhibited cell motility.
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
    The BPAE cell line was initiated in 1979 from the main stem of a pulmonary artery belonging to a young cow (Bos taurus). The endothelial cells are positive for bovine diarrhea virus and for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme involved in the maintenance of blood pressure and volume. BPAE cells are often utilized in hypertension research, as well as studies of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblasts (A-10 Line)
    Derived from the thoracic aorta of an embryonic rat, A-10 cells have been important in a variety of investigations as cell motility models for in vitro wounds. During migration, the cells display a significant amount of ruffling at the outer membrane edges along with numerous filopodia projecting into the culture medium. The cells also exhibit highly prominent cytoskeletal stress fibers that often traverse the entire cytoplasm.
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Epithelial Cells (U2OS Line)
    Originally known as the 2T line, the U2OS cell line was cultivated from the bone tissue of a fifteen-year-old human female suffering from osteosarcoma. Established in 1964, the original cells were taken from a moderately differentiated sarcoma of the tibia. U2OS cells exhibit epithelial morphology and are positive for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) receptors.
  • Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDBK Line)
    The Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) line was derived from the renal tissue of an adult steer (Bos Taurus) in 1957. The epithelial line is utilized in laboratories around the world for a variety of applications, but is perhaps most significant for its usage to grow attenuated viruses for vaccine production. The cells are susceptibled to bovine diarrhea virus, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parvovirus, bovine adenovirus I and III, and parainfluenza virus 3.
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
    The Madin-Darby ovine kidney (MDOK) cell line was established from the renal tissue of a male sheep (Ovis aries). The line exhibits typical epithelial morphology and is susceptible to several viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana and New Jersey strains), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and sheep bluetongue virus. MDOK cells exhibit significant contact inhibition of migration and tend to gather together into small colonies in culture.
  • Male Human Lung Carcinoma Epithelial Cells (A-549 Line)
    The A-549 cell line was originally cultivated in 1972 from the human lung carcinoma of a 58-year-old Caucasian male. The line is commonly used to investigate a wide range of respiratory ailments, such as viral infections capable of inducing asthma, tissue damage linked to asbestos exposure, and smoking-related emphysema. Adherent and epithelial in morphology, A-549 cells have also been widely employed as a model system to study molecular mechanisms that operate during malignant cell migration.
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (CV-1 Line)
    The CV-1 cell line was initiated in 1964 with a tissue section excised from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). The fibroblast line was originally utilized in research focusing on the transformation of the cancer-causing Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), but now is popular as a host for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) research, as well as transfection experiments with simian virus 40 (SV40) and recombinant plasmid vectors.
  • Normal Rabbit Kidney Epithelial Cells (RK13 Line)
    Initiated from the kidney of a 5-week-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), RK13 cells exhibit epithelial characteristics and are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. The established cell line is commonly used to isolate viruses and as transfection hosts. The cells have proven susceptible to infection with the B virus, herpes simplex, pseudorabies virus, vaccinia, rabbitpox, myxoma, simian adenoviruses, and rubellavirus
  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
    The OK cell line was initiated from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana) and was originally intended for use as a source of X chromosomes for studies of X inactivation. The line was soon discovered, however, to display many characteristics of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells and has since been commonly utilized as a cell culture model for the cell type.
  • Racoon Uterus Fibroblast Cells (PL 1 Ut Line)
    PL 1 Ut cells exhibit fibroblast-like morphological characteristics and are susceptible to an array of viruses, including herpes simplex virus, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain). The cells are commonly utilized in the propagation of such viruses for research purposes, and have been particularly useful in investigations of feline and canine viral diseases. The PL 1 Ut cell line was cultivated from the uterine tissue of an adult female North American raccoon (Procyon lotor).
  • Rhesus Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (LLC-MK2 Line)
    In the mid-1950s, the LLC-MK2 cell line was established from a pooled cell suspension prepared from the kidney tissue of six adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto). The cells exhibit epithelial morphology and produce the protease plasminogen activator that typically initiates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. LLC-MK2 cells have been utilized in the production of mumps vaccines and in the isolation of parainfluenza viruses, and are communly used as transfection hosts.
  • Swiss Mouse Embryo Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Transfected Fibroblasts (CRE BAG 2 Line)
    The CRE BAG 2 cell line was established from the NIH 3T3 embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cell line, which was transfected with Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived proviral genomes carrying complementary mutations in the gag-pol or env regions. CRE BAG2 cells produce a beta-galactosidase-transducing vector (BAG) and are similar to the psi 2 BAG alpha line. The CRE BAG 2 line can be utilized to package vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses and is positive for reverse transcriptase.
  • Water Mongoose (African) Skin Fibroblasts (A. P. Mongoose Line)
    The A. P. Mongoose cell line was established at The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) in Oakland, California from the skin of an African water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus). The cells exhibit fibroblast morphology, and similar to other fibroblast lines, are among the easiest cells to grow in culture. Cell biologists hypothesize that the ability of fibroblasts to grow so readily outside of the body is associated with their central role in the healing of wounds, which necessitates their proliferation when confronted with injury or other less than optimal conditions.

Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)

The CV-1 cell line is a widely utilized fibroblast line that was established in the mid-1960s. When the line was first initiated, CV-1 cells were primarily used in investigations of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). More recently, the CV-1 line has garnered a significant amount of usage as a host for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) research. The cells are also often employed in transfection experiments with simian virus 40 (SV40) and recombinant plasmid vectors. CV-1 cells demonstrate susceptibility to a variety of viruses, including herpes simplex, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, poliovirus 1, California encephalitis, and simian virus 40.

  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1 Line)

COS-1 is a transformed cell line that was developed by Yakov Gluzman from the CV-1 line. Two other similarly transformed lines, COS-3 and COS-7, were also initiated from the CV-1 line by Gluzman. The COS-1 cell line was produced via transformation of the previously established line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40) that codes for wild type large tumor antigen (T antigen). Integrated into COS-1 cells is a copy of the entire early region of the SV40 genome.

  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1 Line)

Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)

The COS-7 cell line is a line developed from the standard CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transforming the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 that codes for the wild-type large tumor antigen. COS-7 cells exhibit fibroblast morphology and are often utilized in transfection experiments. COS-7 cells fully permit the lytic growth of SV40 and the replication of populations of SV40 mutants with deletions in the early region.

  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)

The skin tissue of an African water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) served as the original source of cells from which the A.P. Mongoose line was established by The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL). Similar to other fibroblast lines, A.P. Mongoose cells are relatively easy to grow in culture dishes. It is widely assumed among cell biologists that the fibroblast tendency to readily grow and proliferate in vitro is linked to their function in the body, where they are extremely important for wound healing.

  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
  • African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)

Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)

The BPAE cell line was established in the late 1970s from tissue excised from the main stem of the pulmonary artery of a young cow (Bos taurus). The cells exhibit endothelial morphology and are widely used in studies relating to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. BPAE cells are positive for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a substance closely associated with the control of blood pressure and volume. The cells have also tested positive for bovine diarrhea virus, an important bovine viral pathogen.

  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
  • Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-K1 Line)

 

CHO-K1 is a cell line that was derived as a subclone from the parental CHO cell line established from the excised tissue of adult Chinese hamster ovary by T. T. Puck in 1957. Unlike the original CHO line, CHO-K1 cells require proline in the medium for growth in culture. Often utilized as a transfection host, the CHO-K1 line is susceptible to a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain) and the Getah virus. CHO-K1 cells are resistant to poliovirus 2, Modoc virus, and button willow virus. The cells, which exhibit typical epithelial cell characteristics and grow adherently to plastic and glass in culture, are negative for reverse transcriptase.

  • Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-K1 Line)
  • Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-K1 Line)
Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)

The 3T3 line was initiated in the early 1960s by George Todaro and Howard Green from the tissue of an albino Swiss mouse embryo. The cells, which are heavily utilized in biomedical research laboratories around the world, exhibit contact inhibited motility and generally tend to form confluent monolayers. Testing has established that most variants of the initial 3T3 cell line are susceptible to polyoma and simian virus 40 (SV40). The cells are known to be negative for the mousepox virus and for the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
  • Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)

The myoblast cell line A-10 was established from tissue excised from the medial layer of the thoracic aorta of a rat embryo (Rattus norvegicus; DB1X strain). A-10 cells are frequently utilized in medical research, especially in studies of hypertension and other conditions and diseases potentially associated with smooth muscle cells. When cultures of the cells reach the stationary phase of the growth cycle, they produce spontaneous action potentials and experience increased enzymatic activity of myokinase and creatine phosphokinase. The cellular products of A-10 cells also include myosin, the protein that provides the elastic and contractile properties of muscle.

  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Smooth Muscle Fibroblast Cells (A7r5 Line)

The A7r5 fibroblast cell line was initiated from smooth muscle tissue excised from the thoracic aorta of a rat embryo (DB1X strain). Similar to other smooth muscle cells, A7r5 cells produce muscle-type isoenzymes, including myokinase and creatine phosphokinase. Activity of the isoenzymes increases when cultures of A7r5 cells reach a stationary phase. The fibroblasts also produce myosin, the protein that provides muscle with its characteristic elastic and contractile properties. Typical applications of the A7r5 line include biophysical and biochemical studies.

  • Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Smooth Muscle Fibroblast Cells (A7r5 Line)
Grey Fox Lung Fibroblast Cells (FoLu Line)

The FoLu cell line was established from the lung tissue of an adult female grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). The cells are primarily used in virus studies and exhibit characteristics typically associated with fibroblasts. The FoLu line is susceptible to vesicular stomatitis, herpes simplex, and vaccinia viruses, but is resistant to poliovirus. FoLu cells are negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating their lack of integral retrovirus genomes. In culture the cells typically forming monolayers that adhere to glass or plastic surfaces.

  • Grey Fox Lung Fibroblast Cells (FoLu Line)
  • Grey Fox Lung Fibroblast Cells (FoLu Line)
Guinea Pig Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cells (GPC-16 Line)

GPC-16 is a cell line was developed in the early 1980s from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue excised from a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) that was administered 56 milligrams of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intrarectally over a 28-week period. The cells are positive for both PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) and for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. GPC-16 cells are negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating an absence of integral retrovirus genomes. The epithelial cells grow adherently to both plastic and glass surfaces in culture. Studies have demonstrated that GPC-16 cells, which are often utilized in transfection experiments, are tumorigenic in murine specimens.

  • Guinea Pig Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cells (GPC-16 Line)
  • Guinea Pig Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cells (GPC-16 Line)
Horse Dermal Fibroblast Cells (NBL-6 Line)

The NBL-6 cell line was initiated from the dermis of a 4-year-old female horse (Equus caballus; quarterhorse strain). NBL-6 cells demonstrate susceptibility to many viruses, including reovirus 3, herpes simplex, vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain), and vaccinia. The cells are known to be resistant to coxsackieviruses A9 and B5, adenovirus 5, and poliovirus 2. Utilized in a wide array of research and for equine vaccine production, the NBL-6 line is especially notable for its usage in investigations of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a contagious disease that is thought to be increasingly affecting populations of horses in many countries.

  • Horse Dermal Fibroblast Cells (NBL-6 Line)
  • Horse Dermal Fibroblast Cells (NBL-6 Line)
  • Horse Dermal Fibroblast Cells (NBL-6 Line)
Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)

The U-2 OS line was established in the 1960s by J. Ponten and E. Saksela from bone tissue removed from a moderately differentiated sarcoma of the tibia found in a fifteen-year-old female diagnosed with osteosarcoma. Testing has shown that the human epithelial line is negative for simian virus 40, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenoviruses. U-2 OS cells are positive for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) receptors. The established line also expresses various antigens, including blood type A, Rh+, HLA A2, Aw30, B12, Bw35, and B40(+/-).

  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
  • Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
Human Brain Glioma Cells (U-118 MG Line)

U-118 MG is a cell line that was developed from the tissue of a malignant glioma excised from a 50-year-old Caucasian male. The line exhibits mixed morphology, with both glioblastoma and astrocytoma cells being present in U-118 MG cultures. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that U-118 MG cells are tumorigenic in murine species when they are inoculated with the cells subcutaneously. In the 1980s, mycoplasma contamination of major stocks of the line was detected and subsequently eliminated by treatment with BM-cycline. Another cell line, dubbed U-138 MG, is nearly identical to the U-118 MG line though the cells were reportedly developed from distinct sources.

  • Human Brain Glioma Cells (U-118 MG Line)

Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)

A well known cell line, HeLa was initiated in the early 1950s from a tissue sample excised from the adenocarcinoma of the cervix. HeLa cells revolutionized the field of cell biology by becoming the first human cells able to survive indefinitely in culture. The HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line tests positive for keratin and lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), which induces AP-1 activity and c-jun N-terminal kinase activity (JNK1) via a protein kinase C-independent pathway. The cells are also known to contain human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) sequences.

  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
  • Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)

The HCN-1A cell line is a human cortical neuronal line that was initiated from tissue excised from a young female patient whose treatment for intractable seizures included a hemispherectomy. The cells are commonly utilized to model neuronal processes for scientific study. HCN-1A cells test positive for somatostatin, glutamate, neuron specific enolase, tubulin, vimentin, gamma aminobutyric acid, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and cholecystokinin-8, but are negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basis protein. By culturing the cortical neuronal cells with a cocktail of nerve growth factor, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and 1-isobutyl-3-methylxanthine, their differentiation can be induced. When HCN-1A cells differentiate, they assume mature morphology and their growth rate slows considerably.

  • Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)
  • Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)
  • Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)
  • Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)
  • Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)

Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)

The MRC-5 cell line was developed by J. P. Jacobs in the mid-1960s from the pulmonary tissue of an aborted 14-week-old male human fetus. The fibroblast line exhibits adherent growth to glass and polymer culture dishes and can double in population size more than 40 times before senescence occurs. MRC-5 cells are negative for reverse transcriptase and are known to be susceptible to a number of viruses, including herpes simplex, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), and poliovirus 1. The MRC-5 line is a popular cell line often used in a variety of applications, such as virology-related transfection experiments, cytotoxicity assessments, and the development of vaccines.

  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
  • Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)

The A-549 cell line was established in the early 1970s from the tissue of a human lung carcinoma excised from a 58-year old Caucasian male. The epithelial cells stain positive for keratin and are negative for reverse transcriptase. Though utilized in a wide array of research, A-549 cells have been employed especially in scientific studies of viral infections associated with asthma, asbestos-related tissue damage, emphysema, and other respiratory problems. Work carried out by M. Lieber and associates indicate that the cells synthesize lecithin with a high proportion of desaturated fatty acids via the cytidine diphosphocholine pathway.

  • Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
  • Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
  • Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
  • Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
  • Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
Iguana Heart Epithelial Cells (IgH-2 Line)

The IgH-2 line was established from the heart tissue of an immature male green iguana (Iguana iguana). IgH-2 cells exhibit many of the typical characteristics of epithelial cells and are often used to propagate viruses. Testing indicates that the cells can support the replication of various iguana viruses as well as the herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, and vaccinia virus. Cultured IgH-2 cells are known to be resistant to the growth of poliovirus 1 and vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain). The cells are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase, an indicator of the lack of integral retrovirus genomes.

  • Iguana Heart Epithelial Cells (IgH-2 Line)

Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells

The Indian Muntjac epidermal cell line was initiated in 1969 from a sample of tissue from an adult male member of the species Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis obtained via a skin biopsy. The normal fibroblast line is commonly utilized to facilitate chromosomal research. Indian Muntjac cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including vesicular stomatitis, (Indiana strain), herpes simplex, and vaccinia. The cells demonstrate resistance to poliovirus 1 and are negative for reverse transcriptase. Testing indicates that the Indian Muntjac deer skin fibroblast line produces detectable bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigens and infectious BVDV virions.

  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
  • Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)

S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby initiated the MDCK line in 1958 by from the kidney tissue of an adult female cocker spaniel. The cells exhibit typical epithelial morphology and stain positive for keratin. MDCK cells demonstrate susceptibility to a number of viruses, including infectious canine hepatitis, coxsackievirus B5, reoviruses 2 and 3, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), adenoviruses 4 and 5, vesicular exanthema of swine, and vaccinia. The cells, which are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase, are known to be resistant to poliovirus 2 and coxsackieviruses B3 and B4. The MDCK line is a popular tool for studies focusing on the processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein and its proteolytic products.

  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)

The Madin-Darby ovine kidney (MDOK) cell line was established in the 1950s from kidney tissue excised from a normal adult male sheep (Ovis aries). The cells exhibit epithelial characteristics and are useful in virology and veterinary virology research. MDOK cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including sheep bluetongue virus, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana and New Jersey strains), and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Similar to other epithelial lines, MDOK cells experience significant contact inhibition of migration in culture. The cells grow adherently to both glass and polymer surfaces.

  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
  • Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)

PtK2 is a cell line that was initiated from renal tissue excised from an adult male rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylus), a marsupial native to Australia. PtK2 cells exhibit epithelial morphology and stain positive for the intermediate filament protein keratin. PtK2 cells demonstrate susceptibility to an array of viruses, including herpes simplex, coxsackievirus A9, vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain), and vaccinia. The line is known to be resistant to poliovirus 2, adenovirus 5, and coxsackievirus B5. PtK2 is a particularly popular line with scientists carrying out research on the mitotic process.

  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
  • Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
Mink Uterus Endometrium Epithelial Cells (GMMe Line)

The GMMe cell line is an epithelial line that tests positive for the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin and vimentin, but is negative for desmin. The line is also positive for the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Initiation of the GMMe line entailed the stable transfection of endometrial tissue excised from the uterus of an adult mink (Mustela vison) utilizing a plasmid vector encoding simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) driven by the human beta-actin promoter. The cells were then cotransfected with another plasmid vector in order to provide them with neomycin resistance. Cell selection was carried out in medium containing G418, an aminoglycoside commonly used as a selective agent of transfected cells.

  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Epithelial Cells (GMMe Line)
  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Epithelial Cells (GMMe Line)
  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Epithelial Cells (GMMe Line)
Mink Uterus Endometrium Fibroblast Cells (GMMs Line)

Similar to the closely related GMMe cell line, the GMMs line was established via stable transfection of mink (Mustela vison) endometrial tissue using a plasmid vector encoding the SV40 large T antigen driven by the human beta-actin promoter. The cells were cotransfected with a second plasmid vector in order to impart neomycin resistance and were selected in medium containing G418. Unlike GMMe cells, however, which exhibit epithelial morphology, GMMs cells display characteristics associated with cells of stromal origin. The fibroblast-like GMMs cells are positive for the intermediate filament protein vimentin and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, but are negative for desmin and cytokeratin.

  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Fibroblast Cells (GMMs Line)
  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Fibroblast Cells (GMMs Line)
  • Mink Uterus Endometrium Fibroblast Cells (GMMs Line)
Mongolian Gerbil Lung Fibroblast Cells (GeLu Line)

The GeLu cell line was established from the lung tissue of a female Mongolian gerbil that was 403 days old. Scientifically described as Meriones unguiculatus, the Mongolian gerbil is a small rodent native to the hot, arid regions of Africa and Asia. The GeLu cell line grows adherently to both glass and plastic surfaces in culture and exhibits typical fibroblast morphology. The cells are known to be susceptible to several viruses, including adenovirus 2, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), Semliki forest, germiston, and herpes simplex. GeLu cells demonstrate resistance to polioviruses 1 and 3, and they are negative for reverse transcriptase.

  • Mongolian Gerbil Lung Fibroblast Cells (GeLu Line)
  • Mongolian Gerbil Lung Fibroblast Cells (GeLu Line)

Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)

A diverse group of vascular neoplasms that typically feature a red or blue nodular appearance and exhibit characteristics intermediate between those of a benign hemangioma and malignant angiosarcoma are known as hemangioendotheliomas. The EOMA cell line was initiated in the early 1980s from a mixed murine hemangioendothelioma excised from an adult member of the species Mus musculus. EOMA hemangioendothelioma cells synthesize a variety of substances, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), endostatin, interleukin-6, thrombospondin, and cathepsin L. EOMA cells also express surface receptors for acetylated low-density lipoprotein and vascular addressin, a cell adhesion molecule unique to endothelial tissues.

  • Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)
  • Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)
  • Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)
  • Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)

Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)

The OK line was initiated from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum and was originally intended for use as a source of X chromosomes for studies of X inactivation. The line was soon discovered, however, to display numerous characteristics of kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells and has since been commonly utilized as a cell culture model for the cell type. OK cells exhibit a stable nondiploid chromosomal modal number of 23 and display a variety of receptors in culture, including alpha 2 adrenergic, serotonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors. Many studies utilizing OK cells focus upon these receptors.

  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
  • Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
Owl Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (OMK Line)

Established from the kidney tissue of an adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), OMK cells exhibit typical epithelial morphology and grow adherently to glass and polymer surfaces in culture. The OMK line is susceptible to a number of non-human primate viruses, including herpesvirus aotus, herpesvirus saimiri, and herpesvirus ateles, and is chiefly utilized for their propagation in scientific studies. OMK cells have also, however, been used for a variety of other purposes, especially in research related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS.

  • Owl Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (OMK Line)
  • Owl Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (OMK Line)
Rabbit Kidney Epithelial Cells (RK13 Line)

The RK13 cell line was initiated from the kidney tissue of a 5-week-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The cells exhibit typical epithelial characteristics and are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. In the mid-1990s, studies demonstrated that the RK13 cell line, as well as a wide array of other cell lines originating from various species, had been contaminated with the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). RK13 cells are commonly used to isolate viruses and as transfection hosts. The cells are known to be susceptible to herpes simplex, rabbitpox, myxoma, pseudorabies virus, B virus, vaccinia, rubellavirus, and simian adenoviruses.

  • Rabbit Kidney Epithelial Cells (RK13 Line)
  • Rabbit Kidney Epithelial Cells (RK13 Line)
Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)

The EGC/PK060399egfr line is a relatively new enteroglial cell line initiated by a team of German researchers. The line was derived from a myenteric plexus sample from the jejunum of an adult male laboratory rat (Rattus rattus; Sprague-Dawley strain). EGC/PK060399egfr cells exhibit adherent growth and strong glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100, and vimentin immunoreactivities in culture. The line does not show signs of Thy-1.1, desmin, smooth muscle alpha-actin, or C3 complement receptor immunoreactivity.

  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
  • Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
Rhesus Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (LLC-MK2 Line)

The LLC-MK2 line was initiated from a pooled cell suspension prepared from kidneys removed from six adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the mid-1950s. The cell line is often utilized as a host in transfection experiments and is known to be susceptible to polioviruses 1, 2, and 3. LLC-MK2 cells produce the protease plasminogen activator associated with the kidneys that typically initiates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. The cells are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase and exhibit epithelial morphology. They exhibit adherent growth to glass and polymer surfaces in culture.

  • Rhesus Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (LLC-MK2 Line)
Swiss Mouse Embryo Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Transfected Fibroblast Cells (CRE BAG 2 Line)

The CRE BAG 2 cell line was initiated from the NIH 3T3 embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cell line by transfection of the previously established line with Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived proviral genomes with complementary mutations in the gag-pol or env regions. The genomes contained a deletion of the psi sequence needed for the efficient encapsidation of retroviral genomes into virus particles, as well as further alterations at the 3′ end of the provirus. CRE BAG2 cells produce a beta-galactosidase-transducing vector (BAG) and are similar in many ways to the psi 2 BAG alpha line. The line can be utilized to package vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses and is positive for reverse transcriptase.

  • Swiss Mouse Embryo Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Transfected Fibroblast Cells (CRE BAG 2 Line)
  • Swiss Mouse Embryo Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Transfected Fibroblast Cells (CRE BAG 2 Line)
Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)

A sample of ovarian tissue excised from a Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) served as the source from which the HJ1.Ov cell line was initiated. The Himalayan tahr is a relative of the wild goat native to the southern slopes of the Himalayas that has been introduced to New Zealand and other areas, where it tends to have a negative impact on native flora and fauna. The HJ1.Ov line was established by The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) located in Oakland, California. The cells are epithelial in morphology and exhibit adherent growth to glass and polymer surfaces in monolayer culture. Similar to other epithelial cells, HJ1.Ov cells experience significant contact inhibition of migration.

  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
  • Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)


Animal and Human Cells in Culture

Animal and Human Cells in Culture

The fluorescence microscope provides an interesting window into the world of the cell and is one of the biologist’s favorite tools for the examination of both living and fixed cells in culture. The ability to specifically target organelles and macromolecules with synthetic fluorophores and immunofluorescence has produced a virtual revolution in the dynamic field of fluorescence microscopy for the examination of cells in culture. This portion of the fluorescence digital image gallery features widefield fluorescence images captured from over 30 cell lines stained with a mixture of synthetic probes, antibodies, and fluorescent proteins.

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Rat Tissue Sections

Rat Tissue Sections

The humble rat has had an outsized impact on human history. In the Middle Ages, the black rat (Rattus rattus) was blamed for spreading the Black Plague through its fleas, a pandemic that killed a third of Europe’s population, an estimated 34 million people. In modern times, however, a larger cousin, the Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) has become an important model organism in biological research. Selective breeding of the Brown Rat has produced the albino laboratory rat. Rats grow quickly to sexual maturity and are easy to keep and breed in captivity.

View Gallery


  • Human Lung

    Human Lung

  • Human Lung

    Human Lung

  • Human Prostate

    Human Prostate

  • Human Small Intestine

    Human Intestine

  • Human Thyroid

    Human Thyroid

  • Mouse Brain

    Mouse Brain

  • Mouse Brain

    Mouse Brain

  • Mouse Kidney

    Mouse Kidney

  • Mouse Kidney

    Mouse Kidney

  • Mouse Kidney

    Mouse Kidney

  • Mouse Kidney

    Mouse Kidney

  • Mouse Kidney

    Mouse Kidney

  • Mouse Intestine

    Mouse Intestine

  • Mouse Intestine

    Mouse Intestine

  • Mouse Intestine

    Mouse Intestine

  • Mouse Intestine

    Mouse Intestine

  • Mouse Intestine

    Mouse Intestine

  • Sheep Bladder

    Sheep Bladder

  • Sheep Lung

    Sheep Lung

  • Sheep Tongue

    Sheep Tongue

  • Sheep Tongue

    Sheep Tongue

Pond Life Video Gallery

Freshwater ponds provide a home for a wide variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants, insects, and animals. The vast majority of pond inhabitants, however, are invisible until viewed under the microscope. Beneath the placid surface of any pond is a microscopic metropolis bustling with activity as tiny bizarre organisms pursue their lives; locomoting, eating, trying not to be eaten, excreting, and reproducing. In this collection of digital movies, observe the activities of microscopic organisms taken from a typical North Florida pond.

Annelids

Annelida is the phylum of segmented worms that includes earthworms, aquatic worms, leeches, and a large number of marine worms. There are over 9,000 species of annelids in the world.

  • Aeolosoma
    These transparent microannelids inhabit soils and decaying material in stagnant water, using cilia to move about.
  • Chaetogaster
    Chaetogaster is a genus of freshwater worms that belongs to the annelid family, Naididae. Chaetogaster species are predators, actively hunting and consuming smaller organisms.
Coelenterates

Some members of the phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria), such as the Portuguese man-of-war, are famous for their painful stings. Other coelenterates — corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish — are notable for their unusual beauty.

  • Hydra
    Unlike the marine coelenterates, hydras live in freshwater habitats. They have four types of nematocysts, or cnidae, the microscopic stinging capsules found in coelenterates.
Crustaceans

These primarily aquatic arthropods occur in a wide variety of habitats, but most species live in the ocean. Crustaceans are one of the most successful groups of animals, as abundant in the oceans as insects are on land.

  • Daphnia
    Daphnia, or water fleas, are microscopic crustaceans that populate the quiet waters of lakes and ponds throughout the world.
  • Macrothrix
    This cladoceran is one of many varieties of water flea and can be found along weedy margins of ponds and ditches.
  • Nauplius
    The nauplius is a larval form common to many species of crustaceans. It is the first larval stage that emerges from the egg and the earliest free-swimming phase in crustacean development.
Dipterans

The two-winged, or true, flies, such as house flies, midges, gnats, and mosquitoes, are one of the most common and important groups of insects in the world, both ecologically and economically.

  • Ceratopogonid
    Biting midges, also called sand flies, no-see-ums, and punkies, are the smallest of the biting flies. They are well known for their painful bites to humans and animals, but some species bite only other insects.
Gastrotrichs

A group of aquatic invertebrates that live in both seawater and freshwater, gastrotrichs commonly inhabit stagnant waters and bottom muds. These tiny wormlike creatures are related to nematodes (round worms) and rotifers and lack circulatory, respiratory, and skeletal organs.

  • Chaetonotus
    Chaetonotus is the largest freshwater gastrotrich and can be found in plant-choked ditches and mossy ponds.
Nematodes

One of the most abundant animals on Earth, many species of these transparent, microscopic worms are parasites, causing important diseases of plants, animals, and humans. Others exist as free-living forms in soil and aquatic environments or in food products such as beer and vinegar.

  • Nematode worm
    Nematodes range in size from microscopic to seven meters (about 23 feet) long, the largest being the parasitic forms found in whales. They have elongated bodies, usually tapered at both ends, and have a bilateral symmetry.
Platyhelminths

Also known as flatworms, members of the phylum Platyhelminthes are flattened, soft-bodied invertebrates ranging in size from microscopic to more than 50 feet (15 meters) in length.

  • Dalyellia
    Dalyellia belongs to the order Rhabdocoela, a highly diverse group of flatworms. There are many free-living representatives as well as some species that live symbiotically within the bodies of larger organisms.
  • Microstomum
    These are small, elongated turbellarians, with an anterior mouth, and simple gut. They can be found under rocks, submerged leaves, and other debris, where they feed on tiny crustaceans, microorganisms, and organic particles.
  • Stenostomum
    This genus belongs to the order Catenulida, a mainly freshwater group of flatworms, with some marine representatives. This group is different from other turbellarians, with a ciliated, sac-like intestine, simple pharynx, and unpaired gonads.
Protozoans

These one-celled organisms belong to the Kingdom Protista, which includes algae and lower fungi. Although most species of protozoans are invisible to the naked eye, they dominate the Earth’s environment, occurring everywhere and in an amazing diversity of forms and functions.

  • Actinophrys
    These heliozoans are found most often in freshwater, floating in the open water amongst reeds and filamentous algae. Heliozoans are spherical and are frequently enveloped by a shell made of silica or organic material.
  • Amoeba
    Amoebas are primitive organisms characterized by their flowing movements, extending cytoplasm outward to form pseudopodia (false feet); this type of movement is considered to be the most primitive form of animal locomotion.
  • Bursaria
    Bursaria is one of the ciliates, considered the most complex of the protozoan groups. These organisms are large enough to be barely visible, and are characterized by a distinctive "big mouth," or cytostome, which they use to scoop up protozoan prey.
  • Coleps
    This barrel-shaped ciliate is covered by a layer of protective, calcareous plates and is commonly found in freshwater. Coleps is a rapid swimmer, revolving as it travels and using this motion to bore out chunks of other protozoans it is feeding upon.
  • Euglena rostrifera
    This species is a member of the protozoan order Euglenida, a remarkable group of single-celled creatures, many of which exhibit characteristics of both plants and animals.
  • Euplotes
    Euplotes belongs to the ciliate order Hypotrichida whose species are characterized by rows of fused cilia called cirri on the ventral surface. A freshwater inhabitant, Euplotes uses its cirri for swimming and also to "walk" along a substrate.
  • Loxophyllum
    A ciliate that lives in freshwater habitats, Loxophyllum preys upon rotifers and other ciliates. It has groups of trichocysts in wart-like protuberances that it uses for immobilizing prey.
  • Metopus
    Unlike most other ciliates, which are aerobic, Metopus is anaerobic and lives in oxygen-depleted sediments. Some species have even been found living in sediments off the coast of Antarctica.
  • Paramecium
    A well-known visitor to the classroom microscope, this slipper-shaped ciliate is commonly found in freshwater ponds. They feed on other microscopic organisms, sweeping them into a funnel-shaped gullet.
  • Peranema
    A colorless euglenoid, Peranema has two flagella, although only one is usually visible through the microscope. These flagellates live in both freshwater and marine, environments as well as soil and as parasites.
  • Spirostomum
    Some of the largest ciliates belong to the genus Spirostomum, some species large enough to see with the naked eye. These organisms hold the record for the fastest body contractions of any living cell.
  • Stentor
    Also known as the "trumpet animalcule," Stentor is one of the largest ciliated protozoans. Cilia lining the "trumpet" beat rhythmically, drawing food into the mouth of the organism.
  • Urocentrum
    A relative of the paramecium, Urocentrum is a rotund ciliate slightly bifurcated by a two distinct bands of cilia and sporting a tufted "tail" of fused cilia on its posterior. The organism spins on this tail, swimming rapidly in a slightly irregular spiral.
  • Volvox
    Volvox is a colonial organism made up of 500 to 60,000 bi-flagellated cells embedded in a gelatinous wall. It has something of a dual identity amongst biologists, placed by zoologists into the order Volvocida and classified by botanists as a green algae, Chlorophyta.
  • Vorticella
    These bell-shaped ciliates live in fresh or salt water attached by a slender stalk to aquatic plants, surface scum, submerged objects, or aquatic animals.
Rotifers

Discovered in the late 1600s by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, they were originally called "wheel animalcules" or wheel animals because their ciliated coronas gave the appearance of turning wheels. The cilia beat in a rhythmic (metachronal) sequence, creating currents that draw food into the rotifer’s mouth and provide a means of locomotion. Rotifers are the smallest multicellular animals and occur worldwide in primarily freshwater habitats.

  • Brachionus
    These rotifers have a transparent turtle-like shell called a lorica and are found in a variety of habitats, freshwater and marine. Several species are cultured to provide food for fish larvae in aquaculture.
  • Collotheca
    Collotheca rotifers are sessile; they are attached to each other forming a spherical colony, or attached singly to the substrate. Collotheca have extremely long tentacle-like cilia surrounding the corona.
  • Mytilina
    Species belonging to this genus are loricate and are found mostly in littoral habitats. Since the lorica is glasslike, like members of the genus Euchlanis, it is easy to view their internal organs.
  • Philodina
    Philodina belongs to the class Bdelloidea (from the Greek for leech), rotifers that have two ovaries. This type of rotifer moves in two modes, free-swimming and inchworm-like movements along surfaces. Males have never been observed.
  • Squatinella
    Rotifers belonging to this genus are commonly found in littoral (shoreline) habitats among aquatics. In most species, the corona is covered by a semicircular shield, which is used to scrape small organisms into the mouth while browsing over underwater plants.
Tardigrades

Approximately 350 species of the phylum Tardigrada (slow-walking animals) are known to occur worldwide. Also called water bears, most of these free-living organisms are one millimeter or less in size and live in a wide variety of habitats: in damp moss, on flowering plants, in sand, in freshwater, and in the sea.

  • Echiniscus
    This genus of water bear is widespread and common. Their bodies are short, plump, and contain four pairs of limbs that are poorly articulated, a characteristic typical of soft-bodied animals. They lumber about in a slow bear-like gait over grains of sand and dirt or pieces of vegetation.

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