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Homo Universalis: Μπορεί να υπάρξει;

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The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael

Του Νίκου Τσούλια

imageΟ Homo Universalis συνδέθηκε με τις φωτεινές περιόδους της ανθρωπότητας. Ήταν το πορτρέτο του μορφωμένου ανθρώπου που αναδείχτηκε σε εποχές διαφωτισμού, σε εποχές ακτινοβολίας των γραμμάτων και των τεχνών. Εξέφραζε τον ολοκληρωμένο πνευματικά άνθρωπο που είχε συγκροτημένη άποψη για τα ζητήματα της επιστήμης αλλά και γενικότερα για τα ζητήματα του πολιτισμού. Είναι ο παγκόσμιος, ο καθολικός άνθρωπος. Είναι ο άνθρωπος με το ανήσυχο πνεύμα και την κριτική σκέψη που μπορεί να έχει ουσιαστική άποψη για το κοινωνικό γίγνεσθαι, αφού κατέχει πολλαπλά ερμηνευτικά εργαλεία, αφού η ερευνητική ματιά είναι συστατικό στοιχείο της ύπαρξής του.

Προτομή του Αριστοτέλη, Λούβρο

Γεννήθηκε την εποχή της Αναγέννησης, αλλά η εικόνα του επεκτάθηκε προς το παρελθόν για να συμπεριλάβει όλες τις μεγάλες μορφές της ανθρωπότητας, μορφές που επηρέασαν, στον έναν ή στον άλλο βαθμό, τη ροή της ιστορίας. Αναδύθηκε από την υπεροχή της μορφωτικής κουλτούρας που άνοιγε φωτεινούς ορίζοντες στο μέλλον των κοινωνιών, συνδέθηκε με την πολυμάθεια και με την ευρύτητα της γνώσης που μπορούν να δώσουν περιεχόμενο και νόημα στην ίδια τη ζωή. Κορυφές του είναι ο Αριστοτέλης του αρχαιοελληνικού διαφωτισμού και ο Λεονάρντο ντα Βίντσι της Αναγέννησης. Και οι δύο αποτελούν τις αρχετυπικές μορφές του πνευματικά ολοκληρωμένου ανθρώπου.

clip_image002Η Μόνα Λίζα του Leonardo Da Vinci.

Ωστόσο, όσο προχωρούσε η περίοδος της νεωτερικότητας η ιδέα του Homo Universalis άρχισε να εγκαταλείπεται. Ο καταμερισμός εργασίας, το φορντικό μοντέλο παραγωγής, η μεγάλη συσσώρευση γνώσεων και πληροφοριών και η διαρκής εξειδίκευση στο χώρο της επιστήμης και της τέχνης «επέδραμαν» κατά του σχήματος του καθολικού ανθρώπου. Ποιος θα μπορούσε στη διάρκεια της ζωής του να αποκτήσει μια στοιχειώδη επάρκεια των βασικών στοιχείων όλων των περιοχών του επιστητού; Ποιος θα μπορούσε να κατακτήσει το βασικό πυρήνα της πολυμάθειας, για να μπορεί να ανταποκρίνεται στα πολλαπλά ερωτήματα που τίθενται στον πολίτη; Η γνώση εγκιβωτίστηκε σε στεγανά· αργότερα θα προκύψουν η διεπιστημονικότητα και η διαθεματικότητα για να βρουν δρόμους ουσιαστικής επικοινωνίας οι επιστήμονες των διαφόρων γνωστικών περιοχών. Η επιστήμη ήταν απόλυτη: διαφοροποίηση των επιμέρους όψεων της γνώσης, διαρκής εξειδίκευση, επαγγελματοποίηση με παράλληλο επιμερισμό για όσους θα αναλάμβαναν περαιτέρω την ευθύνη της λειτουργίας των οργανωμένων θεσμών της εκπαίδευσης και της έρευνας. Η κοινωνία οργανωνόταν με πρότυπα στεγανοποίησης των διάφορων οικονομικών και κοινωνικών χώρων. Η έννοια των επαγγελματικών προσόντων και των επαγγελματικών δικαιωμάτων έγινε ουσιαστικά η χάρτα διαμόρφωσης των σύγχρονων κοινωνιών.

Η βιομηχανική επανάσταση ήταν απόλυτη: καταμερισμός εργασίας παντού. Ο άνθρωπος γίνεται μέρος μιας αλυσίδας λειτουργιών, που όχι μόνο δεν την καθορίζει πλέον, αλλά και δεν έχει ούτε γενική γνώση ούτε κριτική άποψη επ’ αυτής. Ο άνθρωπος αποξενώνεται από την εργασία του, από το προϊόν του, από το δημιούργημά του, γίνεται μονοδιάστατος. Ο άνθρωπος γίνεται μέρος της μηχανής. Αντί να εξανθρωπιστεί η μηχανή, μηχανοποιείται ο άνθρωπος. Η πρόοδος έχει «τίτλο»: η κοινωνία της αφθονίας έχει ως βάση τη μαζική παραγωγή και την καταναλωτική κουλτούρα. Ο άνθρωπος αλλοτριώνεται με το δέλεαρ της διαρκούς οικονομικής μεγέθυνσης, η οποία καταλαμβάνει το περιεχόμενο και της έννοιας της συνεχούς προόδου. Η ιστορία όμως διαψεύδει τον μύθο αυτής της ταύτισης οικονομικής συσσώρευσης και προόδου και θέτει προς συζήτηση το θέμα: τι είναι πρόοδος και τι ευημερία;

Ωστόσο, η αρτιωμένη πνευματική καλλιέργεια είναι συστατικό στοιχείο της ανθρώπινης ύπαρξης, είναι ψυχική ανάγκη. Τίθεται ένα απλό ερώτημα για τη ζωή του ανθρώπου και για την αναζήτηση του περιεχομένου της: εφόσον όλες οι υπαρξιακές και θεμελιώδεις απορίες και όλοι οι ουσιαστικοί στοχασμοί ως προς τον κόσμο, την πραγματικότητα, τον εαυτό μας είναι στοιχεία καθολικά και παγκόσμια σε όλους τους ανθρώπους, όπου γης και όπου χρόνου, πώς μπορεί να κατακτηθεί οποιοδήποτε νόημα ζωής με τεμαχισμό των σκέψεων και των συλλογισμών που, ούτως ή άλλως, δεν μπορούν να επιμεριστούν; Πώς μπορεί να εξαχθεί η όλη εικόνα της γνώσης και της σχέσης μας με τη γνώση, όταν με το άθροισμα των μερών δεν προκύπτει το σύνολο. Το προκύπτον ζήτημα δεν είναι μεθοδολογικό. Είναι βαθιά πολιτικό και πολιτισμικό. Συναρτάται με το τι άνθρωπο και τι κοινωνία θέλουμε να δημιουργήσουμε, συναρτάται με το πώς θέλουμε να ορίσουμε την αυτογνωσία και την ετερογνωσία.

Η στροφή που προτείνει η UNESCO για επαναπροσδιορισμό και ενίσχυση της γενικής παιδείας στηρίζεται ακριβώς σε αυτή την ιδέα: στην καλλιέργεια του ολοκληρωμένου πνευματικά ανθρώπου. Τα πιο ονομαστά πανεπιστήμια του κόσμου επιζητούν στους υποψηφίους τους πρωτίστως την  πολλαπλά καλλιεργημένη προσωπικότητα, επιζητούν την ευρύνοια και την ευρυμάθεια.   Φυσικά και δεν μπορούμε να γευθούμε όλες τις γνώσεις του επιστητού ούτε είναι αυτό το αιτούμενο. Στόχος είναι η διαρκής μορφωτική προσπάθεια του ανθρώπου για την κατάκτηση των βασικών στοιχείων όλων των περιοχών της, ούτως ή άλλως, ενιαίας γνώσης, για να μπορεί ο άνθρωπος να έχει άποψη για τη ζωή, για τον κόσμο και τον εαυτό του. Αλλά ακόμα και αν η κατάκτηση αυτού του πορτρέτου του Homo Universalis, του πολυΐστορος και ευρυμαθούς πολίτη, δεν είναι πλήρης, δεν είναι το ταξίδι προς αυτό το σκοπό μια πλήρωση της ανθρώπινης αγωνίας και αναζήτησης; Γιατί οι κομματιασμένες γνώσεις όχι μόνο δεν οδηγούν στην κριτική σκέψη και στο υπαρξιακό σκέπτεσθαι, αλλά και μάς απομακρύνουν από την προσπάθεια κατάκτησης του ορθού λόγου. Γιατί το θεμελιακό ζήτημα δεν είναι η γνώση των πραγμάτων αλλά η γνώση του νοήματος αυτών. Και η γνώση αυτή μόνο καθολική μπορεί να είναι.

 

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Ζαν-Ντομινικ Ενγκρ  (1780-1867),   Η Γέννηση των Μουσών

 

Στη συνέχεια παρατίθεται ένας σχετικός πίνακας από τη Wikipedia, που, αν και δεν μπορεί να είναι απόλυτης αξίας, έχει τη σπουδαιότητά του και τη σημασία του.

Σχολείο

The following is a list of people who have been described as a polymath by reliable sources.

The list below is organized by date of birth year.

  • Pythagoras (c. 580–490 BC), a Greek mathematician and philosopher of 6th century BC who founded a school in Crotone in south Italy and a philosophical system, Pythagoreanism, named after him. Pythagoras was thought to be a polymath by his contemporaries.[4] He is sometimes credited with coining the term "philosopher", literally a "lover of wisdom," and considered among the first to follow this vocation.[5]
  • Archytas (428–347 BC); an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist; famous for being the reputed founder of mathematical mechanics.
  • Aristotle (384–322 BC); a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. He numbers among the greatest polymaths of all time.[6][7] "Aristotle was an extraordinary polymath…"[8]
  • Archimedes (c.287–c.212 BC); a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Lived in Sicilian Greek town of Syracuse. Often considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time,[9][10] Archimedes is noted for several advancements in almost every relevant field in his era.
  • Acharya Nāgārjuna (ca. 150–250) was an Indian philosopher who founded the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism [17]. He was not only a philosopher monk but also a physician who practised in the Susratha school, a chemist and a writer as well. His writings are the basis for the formation of the Madhyamaka school, which was transmitted to China under the name of the Three Treatise (Sanlun) School. He is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajnaparamita sutras, and was closely associated with the Buddhist university of Nalanda. In the Jodo Shinshu branch of Buddhism, he is considered the First Patriarch. Little is known about the actual life of the historical Nagarjuna. The two most extensive biographies of Nagarjuna, one in Chinese and the other in Tibetan, were written many centuries after his life and incorporate material seen by some as historically unreliable. Nagarjuna was born a Brahmin,[18] which in his time connoted religious allegiance to the Vedas, probably into an upper-caste Brahmin family and probably in the southern Andhra region of India.[19]
  • Hypatia (<370-415) was a scholar and teacher in Roman Alexandria. She is considered the first notable female mathematician and also taught philosophy and astronomy.
  • Chavundraya (or Chamundaraya) (940–989) was a military commander, poet and a minister in the court of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad (in present day Karnataka, India). A person of many talents, in 982 he commissioned the Gomateshwara, a monolithic sculpture in Shravanabelagola, an important place of pilgrimage for Jains. He was a devotee of the Jain Acharya Nemichandra and Ajitasena Bhattaraka and was an influential person during the reign of Kings Marasimha II, Rachamalla IV, and Rachamalla V (Rakkasa Ganga). A courageous commander with the title of Samara Parashurama, he found time to pursue his literary interests as well and became a renowned writer in Kannada and Sanskrit.[46][47] He wrote an important and existing prose piece called Chavundaraya Purana (also known as Trishasthi Lakshana Purana) in Kannada (978) and Charitrasara in Sanskrit. In his writing, he claims he was from the Brahmakshatriya Vamsa (Brahmin and converted to the Kshatriya caste).[48] He patronised the famous Kannada grammarians Gunavarma and Nagavarma I and the poet Ranna whose writing Parusharama Charite may have been a eulogy of his patron.[46] Because of his many lasting contributions, Chavundaraya is an important figure in the history of medieval Karnataka.
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179); also known as Saint Hildegard, and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, German Benedictine abbess, visionary, and polymath.[69]
  • Maimonides (1135–1204); rabbi, philospher, theologian, physician to Saladin, mathematician, astronomer, scientist.[74][75]
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209); "the polymath Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi";[77] "one of the outstanding figures in Islamic theology… he also wrote on history, grammar, rhetoric, literature, law, the natural sciences and philosophy, and composed one of the major works of Qur’anic exegesis, the only remarkable gap in his output being politics."[78]
  • Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250); King of Germany, Italy, Burgundy and Sicily. Lived most of his life in Sicily. A polyglot speaking eight or nine languages with high literacy in seven. He was a respected warrior and wise negotiator, who cultivated arts and letters. Frederick was patron of a crucially important poetic tradition, the Sicilian School, cited by Dante Alighieri as critical stage in the literary development of Italian and Romance languages in general and vernaculars (i.e. non Latin languages) across Europe. For about a century the poetry of the Palermo court produced a stylistically advanced Sicilian which preceded the Tuscan advanced by Dante as preferred language of Italy and shaped Dante’s view that vernaculars should replace Latin. Frederick was also a multiculturalist, welcoming Greek, Latin, German, native Sicilian and French influences as well as the Arabic inheritance of Sicily. He founded the University of Naples and granted it academic freedom, a very enlightened act at a time when institutions of higher learning were rarely ‘free’ and autonomous. He was a religious skeptic, occasionally defying Popes. An acknowledged expert and writer on falconry with significant zoological studies. He was a lawyer and judge and theorised about the law and its role. He ruled over a brilliant court and cultivated the arts. Known in his time as "stupor mundi", wonder of the world, a kind of 13th century substitute for "polymath".[79][80]
  • Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) (1206–1280); was a Dominican Scholastic philosopher, theologian, and scientist who studied at the University of Paris. "He is called ‘the Great’, and ‘Doctor Universalis’ (Universal Doctor), in recognition of his extraordinary genius and extensive knowledge, for he was proficient in every branch of learning cultivated in his day, and surpassed all his contemporaries, except perhaps Roger Bacon (1214-94), in the knowledge of nature."[84]
  • Amir Khusrow (1253–1325), an Indian Muslim scholar, he was a poet, inventor, mystic, writer, musician, linguist, soldier and historian. Born to a Turkish-Afghan father and an Indian mother (the latter a native of Delhi) in Etah, North India he is best known for his poetry composed in Persian and Hindi (then called Hindustani) under the Delhi Sultans;[91] among his best known works were The Tale of the Four Dervishes and Khamsa-e-Nizami (or Khamsa-e-Khusrau) which includes the popular Indian classical romance Majnun-Laila.[92] He also spoke Arabic and Sanskrit. In 1285 Khusrow participated as a soldier in the war against the invading Mongols; he was taken prisoner, but he managed to escape. In 1301 when Ala ud din Khilji ,the Delhi Sultanate Emperor, attacked Ranthambhor, Chittor, Malwa and other places, Khusro accompanied the king in order to write chronicles. As a Sufi mystic he was a close aide of Nizamuddin Auliya,a famous Sufi Saint. In 1321 he wrote the Tughlaqnama, a history of the Tughluq dynasty.Khusrow is also known to have invented the classical Hindustani instruments the Tabla and the sitar. He is known for introducing Qawwali, Khayal and Tarana types into Hindustani classical music.[93][94]
  • Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464); was a cardinal of the Catholic Church from Germany (Holy Roman Empire), a philosopher, theologian, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. He is widely considered one of the great geniuses and polymaths of the 15th century.
  • Matteo Ricci (1552–1610); Italian Jesuit and a phenomenal figure in the East-West scientific exchange in China. "Matteo Ricci was the perfect man of culture, a polymath versed in all things, mathematics and literature, philosophy and poetry, mechanics and astronomy."[citation needed] In collaboration with Xu Guangqi, he was also the first to translate classic Confucian texts into Latin and classic Western texts into Chinese (including portions of Euclid’s Elements). Life Magazine ranks Ricci among the “Top 100 People” of the 2nd millennium, placing him in 68th position.[127] David Mungello, J. Cummins, Jonathan Spence and Joseph Needham all describe his many first rate talents[128][129][130]
  • Xu Guangqi (1562–1633);[132] a Chinese bureaucrat, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician in the Ming Dynasty, who also helped in the translation of several classic Western texts into Chinese, including part of Euclid’s Elements. Xu has been described as "a fascinating polymath who spread his interests far and wide for a specific purpose: statecraft."[132]
  • Galileo Galilei (1564–1642); an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
  • Athanasius Kircher (born 1601); "a polymath who studied a variety of subjects including: music, Egyptology, Sinology, botany, magnetism";[134] Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything (book title)[135]
  • Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682) was a Spanish Catholic scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic and writer who published no less than 262 works on grammar, poetry, oratory, mathematics, astronomy, architecture, physics, politics, canon law, logic, metaphysics, theology and asceticism.
  • Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, the first constructor of mechanical calculators, philosopher, theologian, and one of the greatest masters of French prose. Not frequently described as polymath, as the word doesn’t exist in French, he was, for instance, praised by Chateaubriand, who said "There was a man who, aged 12, had rediscovered mathematics using rounds and bars; aged 16, written the deepest book on conics seen since Antiquity; aged 19, reduced to mechanical means a science which exists only in the mind; aged 23, found the weight of air, (…), then turned his thoughts towards God (…) giving its definitive shape to the language used later by Bossuet and Racine (…) This frightening genius was named Blaise Pascal" [136]
  • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765);[140] "Lomonosov was a true polymath—physicist, chemist, natural scientist, poet and linguist…"[141]
  • Hiraga Gennai (1728–1780) Edo period Japanese pharmacologist, student of Western studies, physician, author, painter and inventor.
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826); some sources describe him as "polymath and President," putting "polymath" first;[142] John F. Kennedy famously commented, addressing a group of Nobel laureates, that it was "the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House—with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."[143]
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) a German Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Natural Philosopher, Diplomat, Civil servant. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, literature, theology, philosophy, humanism and science. Goethe’s magnum opus, lauded as one of the peaks of world literature, is the two-part drama Faust.[144] "Germany’s greatest man of letters—poet, critic, playwright, and novelist—and the last true polymath to walk the earth"[145] "Goethe comes as close to deserving the title of a universal genius as any man who has ever lived".[146] "He was essentially the last great European Renaissance man."[147] His gifts included incalculable contributions to the areas of German literature and the natural sciences. He is credited with discovery of a bone in the human jaw, and proposed a theory of colors. He has a mineral named in his honor, goethite. He molded the aesthetic properties of the Alps to poetry, thus, changing the local belief from "perfectly hideous" and an "unavoidable misery," to grandeur of the finest most brilliant creation.
  • Hermann Grassmann (1809–1877) was a German linguist, mathematician, physicist, neohumanist, general scholar, and publisher.
  • Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) was a German physician, physicist and philosopher who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science.
  • Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), an Indian Bengali poet, novelist, musician, playwright and painter who reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse",[157] and as the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature,[158] Tagore was perhaps the most widely regarded Indian literary figure of all time. He was a mesmerizing representative of the Indian culture whose influence and popularity internationally perhaps could only be compared to that of Gandhi, whom Tagore named ‘Mahatma‘ out of his deep admiration for him.
  • Edward Heron-Allen[159][160] (1861–1943); Not only was Heron-Allen a lawyer by trade, he also wrote, lectured on and created violins,[161] was an expert on the art of chiromancy or palmistry,[162] having read palms and analysed the handwriting of luminaries of the period. He wrote on musical, literary and scientific subjects ranging from foraminifera,[163] marine zoology, meteorology, as a Persian scholar translated Classics such as the Rubaiyat of Omar_Khayyam and The Lament of Baba Tahir, also wrote on local history,[164] archaeology, Buddhist philosophy, the cultivation, gourmet appreciation of and culture of the asparagus, as well as a number of novels and short stories of science fiction and horror written under his pseudonym of "Christopher Blayre."
  • André Malraux[citation needed] (1901–1976); a French novelist, art historian, adventurer and politician;" France’s first minister of culture and polymath extraordinaire"[181]
  • Paul Robeson [182] (1898–1976); an internationally renowned American bass-baritone concert singer, actor of film and stage, All-American and professional athlete, writer, multi-lingual orator, scholar and lawyer who was also noted for his wide-ranging social justice activism.
  • John von Neumann (1903–1957); a physicist, mathematician, contributions to game theory, economics, pioneering computer scientist. "It isn’t often that the human race produces a polymath like von Neumann, then sets him to work in the middle of the biggest crisis in human history…"[183] "Other luminaries would follow Einstein to New Jersey, including the dazzling Hungarian polymath, John von Neumann…"[184]
  • Herbert Simon (1916–2001); "Simon is a very distinguished polymath, famous for work in psychology and computer science, philosophy of science, a leader in artificial intelligence, and a Nobel Prize winner in Economics."[185]
  • Isaac Asimov (1920–1992); Having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 9,000 letters and postcards, his works have been published in nine of the ten major categories of the Dewey Decimal System. "While most prolific writers tend to concentrate almost exclusively on a single genre, Asimov was a polymath who wrote widely on a variety of subjects." [186]
  • John E. Ainsworth (ca 1920 – 2004) Physicist, Polymath.[189]
  • Desmond Morris (born 1928); a British zoologist and ethologist, who is also a surrealist painter, popular author, and television presenter. "Desmond Morris already has a reputation for being something of a polymath. Zoologist, Man Watcher, gesture expert and even television celebrity…"[190]
  • Robert Anton Wilson (1932–2007), an American author and polymath who became at various times a novelist, philosopher, psychologist, essayist, editor, playwright, futurist.
  • Umberto Eco (born 1932); professor of semiotics, novelist, and an expert on literature, medieval philosophy and pop culture.[193]
  • Jonathan Miller (born 1934); a British theatre and opera director, author, television presenter, humorist, and sculptor, who trained as a doctor. "The polite polymath."[195]
  • Jared Diamond (born 1937); anthropologist, geographer, physiologist, author, ornithologist.[197]
  • Douglas Hofstadter (born 1945); professor of cognitive science, author, philosopher, aesthetist, academic musician and artist, mathematician, physicist.[198]
  • Hamlet Isakhanli (born 1948); professor of mathematical-physical sciences, mathematician, poet, social scientist, scholar of history of education, literature and culture, founder of university, founder and co-founder of various organizations, entrepreneur, writer, translator.[199][200]
  • Nathan Myhrvold (born 1959); computer scientist, technologist, mathematician, physicist, entrepreneur, nature and wildlife photographer, master chef.
  • Chris Lightfoot,[205] (1978–2007); physicist, software developer, entrepreneur, civic campaigner, social activist. First developer at MySociety.
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