Αρχική > εκπαιδευτικός > Global teacher shortage threatens progress on education

Global teacher shortage threatens progress on education

MDG : Teachers shortage : students packed in small classroom in Quezon city, suburban ManilaThe UN estimates 8 million extra teachers are needed worldwide by 2015. But how do countries compare?

Claire Provost 
7 October 2011, guardian.co.uk

Leonora Jusay gives a lesson to her 59 students in Quezon city, the Philippines.

The world urgently needs to recruit more than 8 million extra teachers, according to UN estimates, warning that a looming shortage of primary school teachers threatens to undermine global efforts to ensure universal access to primary education by 2015.

At least 2m new teaching positions will need to be created by 2015, the UN said in a report published this week. An additional 6.2 million teachers will need to be recruited to maintain current workforces and replace those expected to retire or leave classrooms due to career changes, illnesses, or death.

Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Central African Republic (CAR) top the list of countries that will need to mount aggressive recruitment campaigns over the next four years. Burkina Faso will need to increase its teaching workforce by almost 14% each year until 2015 to plug the country’s shortage of teachers, while workforces in Eritrea and CAR will have to grow by 18% and 21% respectively.

"An acute shortage of primary teachers represents one of the biggest hurdles to achieving the goal of universal primary education," said the report, which stressed: "Policies that effectively address teacher training and retention should be at the core of national education policies."

The estimated figures, prepared by Unesco’s Montreal-based Institute for Statistics, aim to help countries identify recruitment challenges and adjust their budgets accordingly.

Unesco’s projections are based on estimates of the numbers of teachers needed to maintain current pupil-teacher ratios and try to account for "attrition" by estimating that 5% of teachers leave each year.

According to Unesco’s projections, the greatest challenges lie in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 1m teaching posts will need to be created by 2015 to meet the needs of a growing number of primary students. Population growth and the push to get all children into school by 2015 has led enrolment rates to soar in many countries, but quality of education will remain a prime concern if countries fail to get enough teachers into classrooms. A total of 350,000 teachers should be hired in sub-Saharan Africa each year until 2015 to fill new posts and compensate for teachers expected to leave the workforce, said the report.

A major challenge facing many countries is the shortage of secondary school graduates. In Mozambique, teacher recruitment needs are expected to dramatically outpace the number of graduates, as in 2009 just 9.5% of young people of secondary school age were enrolled in class. Similar situations threaten teacher recruitment efforts in Burkina Faso, CAR, Chad, Niger, Uganda and Tanzania.

Unesco called for a focus on women and greater gender balance among staff in the drive to hire more teachers.

"In many regions a low proportion of female teachers will mean fewer girls at school and consequently even fewer women teachers in the future," said Unesco’s director general, Irina Bokova, in a statement on Wednesday, co-signed by the heads of three other UN agencies and the director of Education International, the international federation of education trade unions. "Adequate provisions for maternity protection and parental leave, as well as effective protection from sexual violence and abuse, are essential. If qualified female teachers avoid postings in disadvantaged and rural areas, how can we convince reluctant parents to send their children to school?"

Between 1990 and 2009, the global proportion of female primary school teachers grew from 56% to 62%. But most of this growth happened in Asia, where proportions of female teachers rose from 32% to 45% in south and west Asia and from 48% to 61% in east Asia and the pacific. In sub-Saharan Africa, which already had the lowest proportion of female teachers, growth was minimal – from 40% to 42%.

We’ve pulled out the data from Unesco’s report, focusing on the figures for teacher shortages around the world. You can also download the full data which includes regional estimates of recruitment needs. We’ve also added in figures on the proportion of women in teaching posts for 2007-09.

What can you do with the data?

Data summary
Teacher shortages around the world

Country

Teaching staff in 2009 (000s)

Teaching staff needed in 2015 (000s)

Absolute change in stock (000s)

Average annual change

Total recruitment including attrition (000s)

Central African Republic
6.4
20.1
13.7
20.97%
17

Eritrea
7.8
21.5
13.7
18.43%
17.4

Burkina Faso
39
85.2
46.2
13.92%
62.8

Chad
27.4
59.6
32.2
13.80%
43.8

Niger
40
86.1
46.1
13.62%
63

Djibouti
1.6
3.2
1.6
12.03%
2.2

Côte d’Ivoire
56.6
99.3
42.7
9.83%
64.4

Congo
10.4
17.2
6.8
8.68%
10.6

Serbia
17.4
28.6
11.1
8.58%
17.6

Mali
38.4
62.8
24.4
8.55%
38.7

Ethiopia
234.2
379.4
145.2
8.37%
231.9

United Republic of Tanzania
157.2
248.6
91.4
7.94%
149

Mozambique
82.8
130.7
48
7.92%
78.3

Zambia
48.1
75.3
27.2
7.77%
44.8

Guinea
31.8
48.4
16.6
7.25%
28

Equatorial Guinea
3.4
5.1
1.7
6.94%
2.9

Nigeria
466.8
688.2
221.4
6.68%
387

Rwanda
33.2
48.7
15.5
6.61%
27.3

Sudan
123.6
179.4
55.8
6.40%
99.3

Senegal
47.7
67.5
19.8
5.97%
36.5

Occupied Palestinian Territories
14.1
20
5.8
5.92%
10.7

Liberia
22.3
30.9
8.7
5.64%
16.4

Democratic Republic of the Congo
274.5
372.2
97.7
5.21%
191.5

Gambia
6.4
8.4
2
4.64%
4.2

Pakistan
465.3
605.7
140.3
4.49%
296.6

Uganda
168.4
218.1
49.7
4.40%
106.1

Cameroon
72.3
91
18.7
3.90%
42.6

Bermuda
0.6
0.7
0.1
3.88%
0.3

Qatar
7.5
9.3
1.7
3.49%
4.2

Azerbaijan
44.2
53.9
9.7
3.36%
24.1

Bangladesh
361.5
434.4
73
3.11%
190.2

Kuwait
24.6
29.5
4.9
3.09%
12.9

Iraq
286.9
337.7
50.8
2.76%
143.1

Russian Federation
284.8
334.8
50
2.73%
141.5

Oman
25.6
30
4.5
2.71%
12.7

Benin
38.3
44.8
6.5
2.63%
18.7

Andorra
0.4
0.5
0.1
2.38%
0.2

Czech Republic
24.9
28.2
3.4
2.13%
11.2

Iran
278
315
37
2.11%
124.9

Kazakhstan
58
65.5
7.5
2.06%
25.9

Ukraine
98.3
110.6
12.3
1.99%
43.3

Vanuatu
1.6
1.8
0.2
1.98%
0.7

Estonia
6.1
6.9
0.7
1.86%
2.6

Ireland
31.5
35.1
3.6
1.80%
13.5

Cayman Islands
0.3
0.3
0
1.67%
0.1

Comoros
3.7
4.1
0.4
1.66%
1.5

Latvia
10.9
12.1
1.1
1.65%
4.5

Timor-Leste
7.4
8.1
0.8
1.65%
3.1

Egypt
382.5
418.6
36.1
1.52%
155.3

Sweden
61.4
67.2
5.8
1.51%
24.9

Kyrgyzstan
16.3
17.8
1.5
1.48%
6.6

Thailand
348
379.2
31.2
1.44%
139.4

Spain
212.6
231.7
19.1
1.44%
85.2

Sri Lanka
69.9
76.1
6.2
1.42%
27.9

Togo
28.2
30.4
2.3
1.31%
11

San Marino
0.3
0.3
0
1.23%
0.1

Cyprus
3.9
4.2
0.3
1.17%
1.5

Malaysia
209.9
225
15.2
1.17%
80

Mauritania
13.1
14.1
0.9
1.16%
5

Algeria
141.4
151.4
10
1.14%
53.6

Cambodia
46.7
49.9
3.3
1.13%
17.7

Ghana
110.5
118.1
7.6
1.11%
41.6

United States
1772.4
1888.7
116.4
1.07%
662.4

Saint Kitts and Nevis
0.4
0.5
0
1.03%
0.2

Saudi Arabia
284.8
302.6
17.9
1.02%
105.5

Anguilla
0.1
0.1
0
1.00%
0

Bulgaria
15.1
16
0.9
0.99%
5.6

Guatemala
85
89.8
4.8
0.93%
30.9

Slovenia
6.2
6.6
0.4
0.92%
2.3

United Arab Emirates
19.5
20.5
1
0.86%
7

Belarus
23.9
25
1
0.72%
8.3

South Africa
232.2
242.3
10.1
0.72%
81

Italy
273.1
284.3
11.2
0.67%
94.5

Lesotho
11.5
12
0.5
0.67%
4

Republic of Moldova
9.2
9.6
0.4
0.65%
3.2

Saint Lucia
1
1
0
0.49%
0.3

Burundi
33.9
34.7
0.9
0.43%
11.1

Armenia
6.6
6.8
0.1
0.36%
2.1

Venezuela
238.6
243.6
4.9
0.34%
77.1

Cape Verde
3.1
3.1
0.1
0.31%
1

Trinidad and Tobago
7.4
7.6
0.1
0.26%
2.4

Swaziland
7.2
7.3
0.1
0.24%
2.3

Uzbekistan
116.6
118.2
1.6
0.23%
36.8

Greece
62.1
62.8
0.7
0.19%
19.4

Hungary
37.1
37.5
0.4
0.18%
11.6

Antigua and Barbuda
0.7
0.7
0
0.18%
0.2

Belgium
65.7
66
0.3
0.08%
20.1

Namibia
13.5
13.6
0
0.06%
4.1

Slovakia
13.9
13.9
0
0.02%
4.2

Finland
25.7
25.8
0
0.02%
7.8

Dominican Republic
52.9
52.9
-0.1
-0.02%
15.8

Syrian Arab Republic
132.1
131.3
-0.8
-0.10%
38.8

Romania
54.1
53.7
-0.4
-0.12%
15.8

Morocco
144.7
143
-1.7
-0.20%
41.5

Fiji
3.9
3.9
-0.1
-0.22%
1.1

Luxembourg
3
3
0
-0.23%
0.9

Tajikistan
30.5
29.9
-0.6
-0.34%
8.5

Israel
65.9
64.4
-1.5
-0.38%
18.1

United Kingdom
244.4
238.7
-5.7
-0.39%
66.9

Philippines
390.4
381
-9.5
-0.41%
106.5

Montserrat
0
0
0
-0.48%
0

Bolivia
62.4
60.2
-2.3
-0.61%
16.2

Austria
29.2
28.1
-1.1
-0.64%
7.5

Panama
18.7
17.9
-0.7
-0.66%
4.8

China, Macao
1.6
1.5
-0.1
-0.72%
0.4

Croatia
11.8
11.3
-0.5
-0.74%
3

Botswana
13
12.4
-0.6
-0.78%
3.2

British Virgin Islands
0.2
0.2
0
-0.85%
0.1

Peru
184.6
174.1
-10.6
-0.98%
43.5

Brunei
3.7
3.5
-0.2
-1.01%
0.9

Poland
238.7
223.9
-14.9
-1.07%
54.9

Tunisia
60.4
56.6
-3.8
-1.07%
13.9

Bhutan
3.9
3.7
-0.3
-1.20%
0.9

Grenada
0.8
0.8
-0.1
-1.23%
0.2

Georgia
33.5
31.1
-2.4
-1.24%
7.3

Laos
29.5
27.3
-2.2
-1.30%
6.3

Mauritius
5.5
5
-0.4
-1.35%
1.2

Liechtenstein
0.3
0.3
0
-1.42%
0.1

Seychelles
0.6
0.6
-0.1
-1.45%
0.1

Suriname
4.4
4
-0.4
-1.47%
0.9

Japan
396.4
361.9
-34.5
-1.51%
80

Honduras
38.3
34.9
-3.4
-1.55%
7.6

Chile
67.2
61.1
-6.1
-1.57%
13.3

Bahamas
2.3
2.1
-0.2
-1.59%
0.5

Madagascar
90.3
81.5
-8.8
-1.69%
17.2

Lithuania
10.1
9.1
-1
-1.79%
1.9

Nicaragua
32.3
28.8
-3.6
-1.92%
5.7

Myanmar
179.3
159.4
-19.9
-1.94%
31.3

Sao Tome and Principe
1.3
1.1
-0.1
-2.01%
0.2

Argentina
288.8
254.4
-34.4
-2.09%
47.8

Costa Rica
28.9
25.4
-3.5
-2.13%
4.7

Lebanon
33.3
29.2
-4.1
-2.17%
5.3

Germany
242.3
212.1
-30.2
-2.19%
38.6

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
0.9
0.8
-0.1
-2.19%
0.1

Singapore
16.9
14.8
-2.1
-2.22%
2.7

Cook Islands
0.1
0.1
0
-2.43%
0

Uruguay
23.6
20.3
-3.3
-2.46%
3.4

Belize
2.3
2
-0.3
-2.58%
0.3

Maldives
3.5
3
-0.5
-2.60%
0.5

Indonesia
1800
1533
-267
-2.64%
238.6

Malta
2.5
2.2
-0.4
-2.64%
0.3

Colombia
180.8
153.9
-26.9
-2.65%
23.9

Cuba
92
77.2
-14.8
-2.89%
10.9

China
6018.8
5024.4
-994.4
-2.97%
682.6

Ecuador
105.2
87.1
-18.1
-3.10%
11.1

Mexico
528.6
436.5
-92.1
-3.14%
54.5

Samoa
0.9
0.8
-0.2
-3.35%
0.1

Guyana
3.9
3.2
-0.8
-3.48%
0.3

Republic of Korea
155.6
124.4
-31.1
-3.65%
11.5

TFYR Macedonia
6.9
5.5
-1.4
-3.76%
0.5

Aruba
0.6
0.5
-0.1
-3.82%
0

Nepal
143.6
113.1
-30.4
-3.89%
8.7

China, Hong Kong
23.3
18.2
-5.1
-4.03%
1.2

Dominica
0.5
0.4
-0.1
-4.27%
0

Barbados
1.6
1.2
-0.4
-4.80%
0

Albania
11.7
8.7
-3
-4.91%
0.1

El Salvador
30.5
22.3
-8.2
-5.09%
0

Mongolia
8.3
5.8
-2.5
-5.83%
0

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